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Increasing Fiber

in Rice Pilaf

Arcelay, Marilyn

March 30, 2007

FOS 4041L

Dr. Dixon

Introduction

Obesity is a word that everyone is currently familiar with. The media and health professionals have been working tirelessly to make the general public aware of its prevalence and detriments to society. With the staggering statistics of 32.2% prevalence in adults and a range of 13.9% to 18.9% prevalence in children and adolescents, these outstanding numbers stand out for themselves. (1) Increasing rates of obesity are associated with higher risk factors for other diseases such as; Type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, diverticulitis, cancer of the endometrium, and breast cancer. (2) Knowing how to combat obesity will lead to decreased complications of the condition as well as a lower risk factor for other diseases.

In light of these significant numbers, our group chose to explore the relationship of dietary fiber to aid in the prevention and treatment of obesity, therefore also reducing the incidence other diseases. Our focus was on making a hot meal with a simple modification to increase the dietary fiber available. The original recipe is a white rice pilaf with the adjustment being made with a substitution of brown rice. This change will boost the fiber intake from 0.8g per serving to 2.6g per serving. The represents a substantial jump in accessibility to a vital part of our diet. We expect favorable results in the acceptance of our modification. The texture is a bit hardier, cooking time is longer, and cost is slightly higher, but we believe the benefits outweigh these variables. The RDA recommends between 25g-30g a day, but the average American receives only 12g-13g per day.(3) With this easy alteration, we hope to increase these low numbers that the average American receives up to the recommended levels. Purpose

The purpose of our research study is to substitute brown rice for white rice in a pilaf. This pilaf can be eaten for lunch or dinner as a hot side dish or main dish. It is intended to introduce a serving of a whole grain in the diet and with it bring an increase dietary fiber. Literature Review

Introduction
The frequent occurrence of this disease, as mentioned above, has produced many scientific research studies concentrating on remedying and reversing the trend. Finding and interpreting the results was uncomplicated. I used the online databases; Google Scholar, Medline, and Cinhal to gather my data. My keywords included obesity and dietary fiber. I assembled strong studies that encompassed sample sizes ranging from 11-74,091 participants, with timelines up to twelve years, and accommodating populations in the United States, Spain, Finland, Brazil, Italy, Greece, the former Yugoslavia, Japan, Serbia, Belgrade, and The Netherlands. These studies centered on three different aspects of the relationship between dietary fiber and weight. These are expanded upon below. A synopsis of the reviewed studies can be found in Appendix 1.

Correlations of the Development of Obesity
Seven out of the ten studies compared the connection between dietary fiber intake and the development or current status of obesity. (2, 4-9) All studies included self reported questionnaires to collect sociodemographic, health history, physical activity, anthropometric, bowel movements, and dietary data. The most common dietary form used was the Food Frequency Questionnaire, with six complying. (2, 4-5, 7-9) The last study utilized twenty-four hour recalls. (6) Other measurements included height, weight, and subscapular skinfold thickness. The entire body of findings revealed that higher fiber intake was inversely related to long term weight gain and increased body fat. Reporting measures were diverse but included the same positive trend. Higher fiber intake equated to an average weight of 1.52kg less, a 48-49% lower...
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