A) Summarize the six key components of the original 1975 IDEA (Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act).
The original 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), was passed to
make certain that students with disabilities receive a publicly funded special
education that is fair and appropriate in the least restrictive environment. Since its
inception, it has been modified several times to make it more effective. In 1986, the
law was amended to now include infants and toddlers. For high school students,
transitional planning was mandated in 1990 to set goals and prepare students for
the post high school years. Over the years, schools would wait until a student would
fall considerably behind their peers for intervention. It wasn’t until 2006 a process
called Response to Intervention (RTI) allowed early intervention to determine other
ways to prevent academic failure. New concepts have been added to the law such
as, the Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) that is individually tailored for each
student with exceptionalities.
The main purpose of IDEA, which is now renamed 2004 IDEA, is to offer all children
• a free appropriate public education (FAPE) geared to meet the distinct
learning needs of the individual child. The quality of educational services
provided to students with disabilities must be equal to those provided to
• to ensure safeguards by defending the rights of parents and their child with a
• to aid states with early intervention for infants and toddlers along with their
• to provide the necessary tools and support system that raises educational
results for these exceptional children.
• to evaluate and monitor that objectives are met and aligned with state
There are six key components:
1) Eligibility - Locate, identify, & provide services to all eligible students with
disabilities. Must determine that a child has a specific learning disability in
one or more of the central nervous system processes involved in
understanding or using concepts through verbal or non verbal means. A child
must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and testing must be free
from bias (racially, culturally, linguistically). Various types of assessments
must be administered. Evaluations should be geared to enable the child to be
involved in the general curriculum.
2) FAPE – Federal government provides assistance to states to provide a free
public education for eligible children with disabilities (regardless of the
severity). Any related services such as occupational therapy must also be
provided if deemed necessary in order for the child to benefit from special
education. Tutoring programs where put into action for those disabled
students needing extra help passing required classes.
3) Individualized education program (IEP) – an individualized tailored education
plan for each student with disabilities. This plan addresses the current level of
academic functioning, objectives and goals, special education and related
services to support the child, levels of participation in general education
programs such as, state and district-wide tests and extracurricular activities,
transition services, goals to be achieved, and evaluations to monitor progress.
4) Least restrictive environment (LRE) – allows children with disabilities the
opportunity to learn their education in regular classes with the use of
supplementary aids and services to the maximum extent...