by Victoria L. Tinio
This set of E-Primers on the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to development, is presented by UNDP for the benefit of participants to the World Summit on the Information Society. These E-Primers have been produced by UNDP’s regional project, the Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP), in association with the secretariat of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). They cover a range of key topics of special interest to the ICT for Development field. Although produced mainly within and for the Asia-Pacific region, the Primers contain information and examples which pertain universally. • The Information Age • Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure • E-commerce and E-business • Legal and Regulatory Issues for the Information Economy • E-government • ICT and Education • ICT for Poverty Alleviation Additional titles will be added, and all can be found at http://www.eprimers.org and http://www.apdip.net.
Stephen Browne Group Leader ICT for Development United Nations Development Programme Bureau for Development Policy 304 E. 45th Street New York, NY 10017
One the many challenges facing developing countries today is preparing their societies and governments for globalization and the information and communication revolution. Policy-makers, business executives, NGO activists, academics, and ordinary citizens are increasingly concerned with the need to make their societies competitive in the emergent information economy. The e-ASEAN Task Force and the UNDP Asia Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDPAPDIP) share the belief that with enabling information and communication technologies (ICTs), countries can face the challenge of the information age. With ICTs they can leap forth to higher levels of social, economic and political development. We hope that in making this leap, policy and decisionmakers, planners, researchers, development practitioners, opinion-makers, and others will find this series of e-primers on the information economy, society, and polity useful. The e-primer aims to provide readers with a clear understanding of the various terminologies, definitions, trends, and issues associated with the information age. It is written in simple, easy-to-understand language. It provides examples, case studies, lessons learned, and best practices that will help planners and decision makers in addressing pertinent issues and crafting policies and strategies appropriate for the information economy. This e-primer is also available online at www.eprimers.org. and www.apdip.net. This e-primer is brought to you by UNDP- APDIP, which seeks to create an ICT enabling environment through advocacy and policy reform in the Asia-Pacific region, and the e-ASEAN Task Force, an ICT for development initiative of the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We welcome your views on new topics and issues on which the e-primers may be useful. Finally, we thank all who have been involved with this series of e-primers-writers, researchers, peer reviewers and the production team.
Roberto R. Romulo Chairman (2000-2002) e-ASEAN Task Force Manila, Philippines
Shahid Akhtar Programme Coordinator UNDP-APDIP Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia www.apdip.net
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION I. DEFINITION OF TERMS WHAT ARE ICTS AND WHAT TYPES OF ICTS ARE COMMONLY USED IN EDUCATION? WHAT IS E-LEARNING? WHAT IS BLENDED LEARNING? WHAT IS OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING? WHAT IS MEANT BY A LEARNER-CENTRED ENVIRONMENT? THE PROMISE OF ICTS IN EDUCATION HOW CAN ICTS HELP EXPAND ACCESS TO EDUCATION? HOW DOES THE USE OF ICTS HELP PREPARE INDIVIDUALS FOR THE WORKPLACE? HOW CAN THE USE OF ICTS HELP IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION? HOW CAN ICTS HELP TRANSFORM THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT INTO ONE THAT IS LEARNER-CENTRED? THE USES OF ICTS IN EDUCATION HOW HAVE RADIO AND TV BROADCASTING BEEN USED IN EDUCATION? WHAT IS TELECONFERENCING AND...