IBN KHALDUN BIOGRAPHY.
Accoring to Issawi , C. (2009) Ibn Khaldun is the greatest Arab historian, who develop one of the earliest nonreligous philosophy of history, contained in his masterpiece, the Muqaddimah (“Introduction”). He also wrote a definitive history of Muslim Norh Africa. Mahmoud Dhaouadi (1997) stated that Ibnu Khaldun’s full name is ‘Abdu-ar-Rahman Abu Zaid Wali-ad-Din Ibn Khaldun. He was born in Tunis (1332) and died in Cairo (1406). His family was of Arab Yemenite descent who had first settled in Muslim Spain and later moved to Tunisia. When Ibn Khaldun reached the age of schooling, he began to learn and recite the Qur’an as did most pupils of that time. The education he received in Tunis in his youth was concentrated in three areas : (1) Islamic studies, which cover the sciences of the Qur’an, the Hadith (the prophet’s sayings and behaviour) as well as Islamic Fikh (jurisprudence) , particularly the Malikite School ; (2) the sciences of the Arabic language which deal with grammar , conjugation and the art of eloquent written and spoken language (al-Balagha) ; and (3) logic , philosophy, natural sciences and mathematics. Muhsin Mahdi (1968) explain that the teacher he admired most during this period was the mathematician and philosopher Muhammad Ibn Ibrauhium al-Aubiliu (1282/3-1356), whom he considered the most proficient of his contemporaries in the philosophic disciplines. His studies with Aubiliu extended over five years, from 1347 to 1352. They began with mathematics and logic and then branched out to include various other philosophic disciplines. Aubiliu introduced him to the major works of Avicenna and Averroes and acquainted him with the more recent philosophic and theological writings of the heterodox Shruites in Eastern Islam. Ibn Khaldun’s early work (1351) provides direct evidence for his philosophic interest and ideas during this period. His other early philosophic works, including treatises on logic and mathematics and a number of paraphrases of Averroes’ works, have not been recovered as yet.
IBN KHALDUN ACHIEVEMENT.
During his previous life, he has received many achievements in his life. He is known as Father of Modern Social Science and Cultural History. He is also the founder of sosiological sciences. . At the early age, he manage to cope with different type of knowledge such as Qur’anic science, Arabic, Poetry, Traditions, Classical Education (Qur’an, Science, Arabic Language and Fiqh) which he recive certification to these subject. Then, he has involved in political career as he held a post at the court of Tunisia at the age of 20. After three years later, he has worked as a secretaryship to the Sultan of Morocco for about two years. He once given a ministerial position by Abu Salem. After that, at the chancellery of the Tunisian ruler, Ibn Takrakin, he hold the position of Katib al-‘alamah which is consisted of writing in fine calligraphy or introductory notes of official documents. After that, at Cairo, he became a noted professor, judge and sheikh or better known as manager of Baybars, the greatest sufi institution during that time. Then he become an ambassador of the Sultan of Granada to Pedro the Cruel, Cristian king of Castile in 1363. This showed how people trust him in everything. In addition, he used to be a teacher and magistrate at Ta’rif. Ibn khaldun has inspired many people. In studied, he is excelled in Arabic Literature, Phisiolophy, Mathematics and Astronomy. At the age of 19, he has wrote his first book, Lubabu I-Muhassal under the supervision of his teacher, al-abili in Tunis.Next, he also manage to wrote Mukaddimah or known as Prolegomena in Europe. He wrote Prolegomena At the Castle of Ibn Salama when he receive inspiration to wrote it during his retirement. He only takes five month to finish writing Mukaddimah. Mukaddimah has been evaluate and fully appreciate by Europe scholarship. Unfortunedly, his work doesn’t get...
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