Ibn Khaldun

Topics: Sociology, Tunisia, Ibn Khaldun Pages: 1 (364 words) Published: October 27, 2011
Ibd-Khaldun was born in 1332 and lived as a scholar, teacher, political advisor and activist in North Africa and southern Europe in the late fourteenth century. Ibd-Khaldun was among the earliest scholars to focus his work on social and historical factors and the interaction of the two. Ibd-Khaldun was born in Tunis to an educated family and was schooled in mathematics, history and religious studies and later became quite active politically serving various leaders in his homeland as well as in Spain, Morocco, and Algeria as an ambassador and scholar. During this time, Ibd-Khaldun was imprisoned for several years for questioning the divinity of social and state leaders. Ibn Khaldun wrote the book, Muqaddimah to display his theory on history and how to write about it. To Iba Khaldun, history appears to him based on patterns that repeat themselves over and over during the course of history. A major pattern which dictates much of history is continuous cycle that there is a rise and fall of political powers within dynasties. Ibn Khaldun called a certain type of civilization known as ‘Umran’ which his based on tribal solidarity which is the distinguishing mark of a nomadic life. Nomads lead a very simple life and do not know anything of luxury. Ibn Khaldun believes that humans feel an inherent need to live together though some people are of a hostile nature, co-existence calls for some support. These sanctions are either put by a powerful individual or tribal solidarity determines them naturally. Thus the need for a common authority results in the establishment of the state. Ibn Khaldun believed that social solidarity maintains much stronger in nomadic tribes. If united with religion, it becomes an irresistible power. As the state establishes more firmly, the social solidary is no longer needed due to the settled living people who indulge in luxury. Luxury dissolves the solidarity and the ruler uses that in order to strengthen his authority. He then forms a council and...
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