Evaluate/Compare and Contrast/Discuss/Examine models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies (22)

Human beings actively process information and it is cognitive processes that guide behavior. These cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. One of the cognitive processes is memory. Many researchers and psychologies have proved that the mind can be studies scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods. This is demonstrated in theories and models of cognition which are discussed and continuously tested. The key characteristics of a good memory models are first, testability; second, simplicity; lastly, applicability. This essay looks at strength and limitation/similarities and differences/examine/discuss of models of one cognitive process, which is memory, with reference to research studies.

Not all of developing models have such characteristics above.

MSM by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
* Sensory memory, STM and LTM as permanent structural components of the memory system. * Rehearsal is a control process, which acts as permanent structural components of the memory system. * Rehearsal is a control process, which acts as a buffer between sensory memory and LTM, and helps the transfer of information to LTM.

-Evidence
* H.M. Case studies by Milner (1966)
-Studies of brain-damaged, amnesic patients appear to support the STM-LTM distinction. While STM continues to function fairly normally, LTM functioning is impaired.

* Peterson and Peterson (1959)
-When rehearsal is prevented, information is very rapidly lost from STS.

* Murdock (1962)
-Primacy effect reflects recall from LTM, while the recency effect reflects recall from STM. Together they comprise the serial position effect.

* Glazer and Cunitz (1966)

-Strength
* The model pioneered the new approach to memeory where humans are seen as information processors...

...Luna
MathIA (SL TYPE1)
CirclesCircles
Introduction
The objective of this task is to explore the relationship between the positions of points within circles that intersect.
The first figure illustrates circle C1 with radius r, centre O, and any point P. r is the distance between the centre O and any point (such as A) of circle C1.
Figure 1
The second diagram shows circle C2 with radius OP and centre P, as well as circle C3 with radius r and centre A. An intersection between C1 and C2 is marked by point A. The intersection of C3 with OP is marked by point P’.
Figure 2
Through this investigation I will examine how the r values correlate with the values of OP in determining the length of OP’ when r is held as a constant variable and the value of OP is the variable that is subject to change. I will then venture on to study the inverse, the relationship when the r values becomes the variable that is changed and the OP value is held constant.
r as a Constant
If we let the value of r be equal to 1, we can use that information to find the length of OP’ when OP=2, 3, and 4. The first thing one can deduce is that by using the points A, O, P’, and P two isosceles triangles can be formed; ∆AOP and ∆AOP’. To...

...Jonghyun Choe
March 25 2011
MathIBSL
Internal Assessment – LASCAP’S Fraction
The goal of this task is to consider a set of fractions which are presented in a symmetrical, recurring sequence, and to find a general statement for the pattern.
The presented pattern is:
Row 1
1 1
Row 2
1 32 1
Row 3
1 64 64 1
Row 4
1 107 106 107 1
Row 5
1 1511 159 159 1511 1
Step 1: This pattern is known as Lascap’s Fractions. En(r) will be used to represent the values involved in the pattern. r represents the element number, starting at r=0, and n represents the row number starting at n=1. So for instance, E52=159, the second element on the fifth row. Additionally, N will represent the value of the numerator and D value of the denominator.
To begin with, it is clear that in order to obtain a general statement for the pattern, two different statements will be needed to combine to form one final statement. This means that there will be two different...

...MathSL Portfolio – Tips and Reminders Checklist
Notation and Terminology
Check for the following:
• I did not use calculator notation. (I didn’t include things like ‘x^2’ for or Sn for Sn)
• I used appropriate mathematical vocabulary.
Communication
Check for the following:
• The reader will not need to refer to the list of questions in order to understand my work.
• My responses are not numbered.
• I have an introduction, conclusion, title page, and table of contents.
• All graphs are labeled – Each graph has a title, labeled axes, and appropriate scale.
• My graphs and tables are within the body of my work. They are not separate or in an appendix.
• I have explained why I made the choices I did when going through the task.
• I did not include key stroke sequences, e.g. “I pressed the 2nd key, then TRACE…”
• My tables do not straddle pages.
• My tables are labeled well, including my variable definitions in each column.
Use of Technology
Check for the following:
• I used technology to illustrate my points and ideas. I didn’t just “stick in” a graph.
• Each graph or table (or other piece of tech.) is accompanied by explanations and my ideas.
• I did not include too many graphs on the same axes – my graphs are easy to read.
Mathematical Process (Type 1)
Check for the following:
• I explicitly defined variables and parameters the first time I used them, even if they were
already defined in...

...In Lacsap’s Fractions, En(r) refers to the (r+1)th term in the nth row. The numerator and denominator are found separately, therefore to find the general statement, two different equations, one for the numerator and one for the denominator, must be found. Let M=numerator and let D=denominator so that En(r) = M/D.
To find the numerator for any number of Lacsap’s Fractions, an equation must be made that uses the row number to find the numerator. Because the numerator changes depending on the row, the two variables (row number and numerator) must be compared. To find this equation, the relationship between the row number and numerator must be found, put it graph form, and the equation for the graph will be the equation needed.
Row Number, n | Numerator, N |
1 | 1 |
2 | 3 |
3 | 6 |
4 | 10 |
5 | 15 |
Numerator
Numerator
Row Number
Row Number
The equation for the numerator can be derived by using quadratic regression on a graphing calculator. The equation is; y = .5x2 + .5x. This translates into; M=.5n2+.5n, where n=row number, and M=numerator. This means that any numerator from a certain row number can be found by using this equation. For example, to find the numerator of the sixth row, “6” needs to be substituted in for n.
M= .5n2 + .5n
M= .5(6)2 + .5(6)
M= .5(36) + .5(6)
M= 18 + 3
M= 21
The Numerator for row six is 21
They method to find the equation for the denominator is similar, but slightly more difficult...

...SL TYPE 1-LACSAP’S FRACTIONS
* INTRODUCTION
This investigation is going to do research patterns relates to the Lacsap’s Fractions. For its external structure, Lacsap’s Fraction is analogous to Pascal’s Triangle. Lacsap’s Fraction presents the way of generating and organizing the binomial coefficients. Within this investigation, the work is planning to be divided into two parts. In the first part, the content will relate to the pattern of numerators. In the second part, I am going to do the research on the patterns of denominator and the general statement for. Admittedly, the technology of computing will be involved into this investigation (E.g. Geogebro and GSP5chs). The following figure 1-1 illustrates Lacsap’s Fraction.
Fig.1-1
* PART A - CALCULATIONS and ANALYSIS
Firstly, I am going to research the numerator patterns. By observing the numerators of these fractions, it is illustrated that the first row of numerator is 1, second row of numerator is 3, third row of numerator is 6, fourth row of numerator is 10 and fifth row of numerator is 15. Let’s present it into the mathematical way: (= numerator of the row)
Continued
I realize that , , , Thus it is easily to find the numerator of the sixth row which is getting from. In order to do further investigation, it is essential to make a data table.
| numerator |
1 | 1 |
2 | 3 |
3 | 6 |
4 | 10 |
5 | 15 |
6 | 21 |
… | … |
n | ? |
Table 2-1
According to the...

...OPA Circle Style
The three circles; O, P and A intersect to create an interesting investigation regarding circles. Since this is a Calculus course, the investigation does have to deal with Derivatives. The most important and the focus of this portfolio is the line segment, OP’. Using the given diagram above, this investigation consists of finding the general equation for discovering OP’.
The values that are given are that r, is the radius of C1 and C2. OP and AP are the radii of C3. This information allows for the information to be manipulated too create two isosceles triangles. The first triangle and the one that is given, ∆OPA is an isosceles triangle therefore it can be concluded, thanks to the Isosceles Triangle Theorem that angle O and A are congruent to each other in this triangle. ∆OPA is not the only triangle that can be created, ∆OP’A is the second triangle created with a radius from C2. Therefore ∆OP’A is also an isosceles triangle. Now in both the triangles stated above, they share a common angle, O. With the help of this information we can analyze the preliminary relationship between OP and OP’.
We can find OP’, we have the tools. The two tools that we will be using mainly are the sine law and cosine law (respectively);
Sin Aa = Sin Bb = Sin Cc a2= b2+ c2-2bc cosA
and the two triangles that are going to be used;
For the first calculations, r=1 and OP =2. By finding the ∠O in one triangle, I have found...

...Lacsap’s Fractions
IBMathSL
Internal Assessment Paper 1
Lacsap’s Fractions
Lacsap is Pascal spelled backward. Therefore, Pascal’s Triangle can be used practically especially with this diagram.
(Diagram 1)
This diagram is of Pascal’s Triangle and shows the relationship of the row number, n, and the diagonal columns, r. This is evident in Lacsap’s Fractions as well, and can be used to help understand some of the following questions.
Solutions
Describe how to find the numerator of the sixth row.
There are multiple methods for finding the numerator of each consecutive row; one way is with the use of a formula, and another by using a diagonal method of counting illustrated by a diagram.
The following image can be used to demonstrate both techniques to finding the numerator:
(Diagram 2)
This formula uses “n” as the row number and the outcome is the numerator of the requested sixth row.
n2 + n
2
As indicated, inputting the number 6, as the requested sixth row, for n gives the solution of 21.
X = n2 + n
2
X = (6)2 + (6)
2
X = 36 + 6
2
X = 42
2
X = 21
Therefore, as shown, the numerator of the sixth row is 21, and this can be checked for validity by entering each number, 1 through 5, into the formula and making sure that the answer corresponds with the numerator in the above diagram.
Where n = 5: Where n = 4:
X = n2 + n X = n2 + n...

...IB Mathematics SL Year 1
Welcome to IB Mathematics. This two-year course is designed for students who have a strong foundation in basic mathematical concepts. The topics covered in this course include:
* Algebra
* Functions
* Equations
* Circular functions
* Trigonometry
* Vectors
* Statistics
* Probability
* Calculus
-------------------------------------------------
Resources:
* Textbook: Mathematics SL 3rd edition. Haese Mathematics 2012
ISBN: 978-1-921972-08-9
* Edmodo: A virtual learning website where students can get homework assignments, ask homework questions, access class documents, and communicate with peers. https://iam.edmodo.com/
* Class code: ybu2s4
* Quest: Virtual learning website where students will complete graded homework assignments. https://quest.cns.utexas.edu/
* Graphing Calculator. Recommended for this course and all subsequent math courses. The Ti-Nspire or Ti-84 plus silver edition are both good choices. http://education.ti.com
* Khan Academy: http://www.khanacademy.org. Will be used to provide students with alternative resources.
* Geometer’s Sketchpad: Graphing software. Will be installed on student computers. http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/
* Additional print, online resources and worksheets may be used.
-------------------------------------------------
Assignments:
There...

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