To what degree were the measures taken by the DINA effective in stopping opposition to Pinochet from 1973 to 1977?
Word Count: 1,993
Number of pages: 12
Section A: Plan of Investigation
In June of 1974 Augusto Pinochet and the Junta formally established the Directorate of National Intelligence also known as the DINA (Kornbluh 157) and was a prominent branch of Pinochet’s regime until 1977. The DINA was key in consolidating Pinochet’s power in Chile by eliminating opposition. In order to determine the to what degree were the measures taken by the DINA effective in stopping opposition to Pinochet from 1973 to 1977, this investigation will examine the purpose and intent of the DINA, the projects and measures carried out by the DINA and their success through sources like Chile Under Pinochet by Mark Ensalaco and The Pinochet File by Peter Kornbluh, the decrease or increase in opposition to the regime as demonstrated by the elimination of rebel groups and political opposition, especially the elimination of the front-runners against Pinochet’s regime by studying published CIA reports. Word Count: 144
Section B: Summary of Evidence
Purpose and intent of The DINA
* Created by the Junta at the end of 1973 (National Intelligence Directorate) * Represents and institutionalised the Caravan of Death (Kornbluh 157) * It’s said purpose to be “A military body of a technical and professional nature under the direct command of the Junta, to produce intelligence needed for policy formulation and planning for the adoption of those measures required for protection of national security and the development of the country”(Ensalaco 55) * Used the means of terror and fear to eliminate opposition and gain information * A Gestapo-type police force (Kornbluh 158)
* Intended to centralise both the gathering of intelligence and dispensing of repression (Kornbluh 158) * Aimed to eliminate opposition of all kinds (civilian dissent, political opposition, and international opposition, and internal opposition within the military government) (Kornbluh 159) Projects and measures carried out by the DINA
* 13,500 were arrested and detained after the initial Junta coup * Turned National Stadium in Santiago Chile into a detention centre where torture and information extraction was to be carried out * DINA established the “Brigada Ciudana” a branch of the DINA composed of civilians who work for the DINA as informers (Kornbluh 187) * Established the “Brigada Exterior” composed of DINA operatives who conduct intelligence operations in foreign countries (Kornbluh 187) * Elimination of Revolitionary Left Movement (Ensalaco 69) * Assassination of important figures of opposition
The Elimination of front-runners against Pinochet
* Elimination of the Revolutionary Left Movement also known as the MIR * The MIR’s most militant groups the Revolutionary Workers Front (MIR-FTR) and the Revolutionary Workers Front (MIR-MPR) weren’t able sustain resistance in the September 11 coup * DINA abducted Bautista Van Schowen and his body was discovered by the next day (Ensalaco 72) * MIR’s destruction was entrusted to the DINA’s Caupolicán group (Ensalaco 75) * Caupolicán worked in action teams they conducted surveillance, street patrolling, and abductions of MIRista members (Ensalaco 75) * Two of the five Caupolicán teams had a collaborator, Osvaldo Romo Mena, who defected from the MIR * Captured Alfonso Chanfreau a Political Director of the MIR-FPR (Ensalaco 76) * Assasination of Orlando Letelier in 1976 (www.gwu.edu and Kornbluh 179) * Letelier assassinated on September 20, 1976 (www.gwu.edu) * Letelier was a high-ranking official under the Allende government (www.fragmentsweb.org)...