Nutrition is the study of food and its use by the human body. Nutrients are food components (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water) which provide growth energy and replacement.
2. Describe the requirements of the human body for a healthy diet.
A healthy diet provides the right amount of nutrients, ie not in defiency or in excess. The bulk of the RDA is carbohydrates (50%) for energy, 30% comes from fat, and the rest from proteins. Proteins are mostly responsible for giving the body the required amino acids to form new proteins. Out of the 20 amino acids, 10 cannot be synthesized by the body and must be ingested. 50 grams of complete proteins, foods that contains all amino acids, from red meant, fish, egg is sufficient for a daily requirement of protein. Vitamins are required in a small amount to regulate enzyme changes. The human body is 70% water and which dissolves the chemicals in our system (transporting wastes and nutrients). Minerals are required in small amounts for bone and teeth formation, red blood cells and other functions.
3. What is calorific value? Explain how the calorific value of a food is related to its enthalpy of combustion.
Calorifc value is the amount of energy stored in food, a raise temperature at 1g of H2O by 1C is needed to consume one calorie.
4. State the basic structure of 2-amino acids.
5. What are optical isomers? Why does the basic structure of 2-amino acids give rise to optical isomers?
Optical isomerisms are compounds that are mirror images of each other. If RH, the 2-carbon atom is asymmetrical, allowing optical isomerism to occur.
6. Under what conditions are amino acids neutral? acidic? basic?
Amino acids are neutral when in neutral solutions. In acidic solutions, amino acids acts like a base accepting H+ ions, while in basic solutions, amino acids acts like acids... [continues]
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