Objective of IAS 21
The objective of IAS 21 is to prescribe how to include foreign currency transactions and foreign operations in the financial statements of an entity and how to translate financial statements into a presentation currency. [IAS 21.1] The principal issues are which exchange rate(s) to use and how to report the effects of changes in exchange rates in the financial statements. [IAS 21.2] Key Definitions [IAS 21.8]
Functional currency: the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. (The term 'functional currency' was used in the 2003 revision of IAS 21 in place of 'measurement currency' but with essentially the same meaning.) Presentation currency: the currency in which financial statements are presented. Exchange difference: the difference resulting from translating a given number of units of one currency into another currency at different exchange rates. Foreign operation: a subsidiary, associate, joint venture, or branch whose activities are based in a country or currency other than that of the reporting entity. Basic Steps for Translating Foreign Currency Amounts into the Functional Currency Steps apply to a stand-alone entity, an entity with foreign operations (such as a parent with foreign subsidiaries), or a foreign operation (such as a foreign subsidiary or branch). 1. the reporting entity determines its functional currency
2. the entity translates all foreign currency items into its functional currency 3. the entity reports the effects of such translation in accordance with paragraphs 20-37 [reporting foreign currency transactions in the functional currency] and 50 [reporting the tax effects of exchange differences]. Foreign Currency Transactions
A foreign currency transaction should be recorded initially at the rate of exchange at the date of the transaction (use of averages is permitted if they are a reasonable approximation of actual). [IAS 21.21-22] At each subsequent balance sheet date: [IAS 21.23]
* foreign currency monetary amounts should be reported using the closing rate * non-monetary items carried at historical cost should be reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction * non-monetary items carried at fair value should be reported at the rate that existed when the fair values were determined Exchange differences arising when monetary items are settled or when monetary items are translated at rates different from those at which they were translated when initially recognised or in previous financial statements are reported in profit or loss in the period, with one exception. [IAS 21.28] The exception is that exchange differences arising on monetary items that form part of the reporting entity's net investment in a foreign operation are recognised, in the consolidated financial statements that include the foreign operation, in other comprehensive income; they will be recognised in profit or loss on disposal of the net investment. [IAS 21.32] As regards a monetary item that forms part of an entity's investment in a foreign operation, the accounting treatment in consolidated financial statements should not be dependent on the currency of the monetary item. [IAS 21.33] Also, the accounting should not depend on which entity within the group conducts a transaction with the foreign operation. [IAS 21.15A] If a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognised in other comprehensive income (for example, a property revaluation under IAS 16), any foreign exchange component of that gain or loss is also recognised in other comprehensive income. [IAS 21.30] Translation from the Functional Currency to the Presentation Currency The results and financial position of an entity whose functional currency is not the currency of a hyperinflationary economy are translated into a different presentation currency using the following procedures: [IAS 21.39] * assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented (including...