Dietary iodine deficiency results in hypothyroidism. This condition is essentially prominent during development and can lead to intellectual deficits such as mental retardation, inattention later on in life. If it occurs that the carrying mother doesn’t consume sufficient amount of dietary iodine, her being the sole provider of the nutrient to the foetus, will significantly hinder the developing brain. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3) are important in the formation of hippocampal neuronal cells, the hippocampus is the cerebral organ and part of the limbic system that is responsible for short and long storage of memory. Their structural integrity is dependent upon the release of thyroid hormones(Dong). After the uptake of iodine, and subsequent release of the thyroid hormones, T4 and T3 being non-polar hormones diffuse directly into the cell, and bind to their appropriate receptors in the cell, before they travel to the nucleus and initiate transcription, and translation(Dong). In this research, it is shown how the lack of iodine impedes the structural integrity and therefore severs the proper function of the hippocampus. For this particular experiment, it is shown how the number of hippocampal cells decrease upon insufficient intake of iodine thus brain dysfunction. The hypothesis is hippocampal cells decrease will during development upon deficiency of activities of thyroid hormones due to the lack of dietary iodine.
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