A hypothesis is a statement, put forth on the basis of reasoning, about the things that are being studied. A hypothesis is an educated guess based on past scientific studies and previous experiments. It is not just a random guess. Observation is followed by a hypothesis. For example ‘Plants need sunlight to grow’ can be a hypothesis. It is formulated by taking into account all the observations that are know about the phenomenon under investigation. It tries to explain the known or predict the unknown but possible features of the phenomenon inductive or deductive logic is also used to form hypothesis.
If we know that the population of a city has doubled in last 10 years, we may use induction to hypothesis that it will double again in another 10 years. Such a statement is a general statement based on induction. This is inductive logic. It can also be misleading inductive statements vary in degrees of credibility and reliability. We cannot jump to conclusions on the basis of insufficient evidence.
It is the opposite of induction. In this the reasoning is more direct. In this the reasoning is more direct. For example ‘roses come in various colours, hence some roses can be yellow’ is a deductive statement. It is widely used in chemistry. Hence, logical analysis takes us from the known to the unknown and it involves an element of risk or doubt.
Law is an independently and sufficiently verified description of a direct link between cause and effect of a phenomenon, deducted from experiments or observations. In general, a law can be defined as ‘A relationship between things that coverup the results of observations and experiments over a wide range of individual cases. Law can be briefly stated as a summary of previous observations and prediction of future ones.