Hypokinetic and Hyperkinetic Dysarthria

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Hypokinetic and Hyperkinetic Dysarthria

Hypokinetic Dysarthria and Hyperkinetic dysarthria are both neuromotor speech disorders. They are both associated with damage to the Basal Ganglia. In defining the word Hypokinetic, Hypo means “lack of” and kinetic means “movement”, forming the definition of a lack of movement. A person with Hypokinetic Dysarthria will show less movement, as seen throughout the speech musculature. In contrast Hyperkinetic Dysarthria means excessive movements of the speech mechanism. While someone with Hyperkinetic dysarthria will exhibit signs of involuntary and excessive movements, a person with Hypokinetic Dysarthria show signs of having less movement. In this paper I will define each dysarthria, discuss the neurologic relation, signs and symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of each disorder (Murdoch, p. 175-177). As mentioned previously, Hypokinetic Dysarthria is caused by damage to the Basal Ganglia. The Basal Ganglia regulates muscle tone, supports muscle behaviors, makes postural adjustments during movement and new motor learning. A person with damage to their Basal Ganglia will struggle with motor control and movement. Another cause of Hypokinetic Dysarthria is having a depletion of dopamine. Damage to the Basal Ganglia is secondary to the depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine (Murdoch, p. 175).

There are many diseases and disorders that lead to damage that results in the diagnosis of Hypokinetic Dysarthria. They are, Parkinson’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Alzheimer’s Disease, Pick’s Disease, Vascular Disorders resulting in multiple or bilateral strokes, repeated head trauma, Inflammation, Tumor, Antipsychotic or Neuroleptic Drug Toxicity and Hydrocephalus(Pena-Brooks, Hedge, p. 348).

The most common cause of Hypokinetic Dysarthria is Parkinson’s Disease. As stated in Brain Based Communication Disorders,“The prototype example for this diagnosis is Parkinson’s Disease”(Murdoch p.175). 60-80% of...
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