Hypo Sludge

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  • Topic: Concrete, Portland cement, Cement
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  • Published : November 7, 2012
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UTILIZATION OF HYPO SLUDGE WASTE FROM PAPER INDUSTRY
IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

A Project Study Presented to the
Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental & Sanitary Engineering College of Engineering, Architecture, Fine Arts & Computing Sciences Batangas State University
Batangas City

In Partial Fulfilment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

By:
Belegal, Adrian M.
Kano, Marikar A.
Lising, Jerick A.

October 2012
Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLESiv
LIST OF FIGURESiv
CHAPTER I1
INTRODUCTION1
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM4
NULL HYPOTHESES5
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY5
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY6
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK7
DEFINITION OF TERMS8
CHAPTER II11
CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE11
RELATED LITERATURE31
SYNTHESIS34
CHAPTER III36
RESEARCH DESIGN36
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENTS38
PREPARATION OF MATERIALS41
TESTING OF MATERIALS43
MIXING AND PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN43
DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH44
DETERMINATION OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH45
STATISTICAL TREATMENT45
FLOW OF THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY47

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE No.| TITLE|
1| Classes of Aggregates|
2| Composition of Portland cement with chemical composition and weight percentage| 3| A table of admixtures and their functions|
4| Properties of Raw Hypo Sludge|
5| Properties of Hypo Sludge as Cement Ingredient|
6| Comparison of Cement and Hypo Sludge|
7| Number of Specimens Tested for Compression|
8| Number of Test Specimens for Flexural Strength Test At 14 Days Curing Period|

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE No.| TITLE|
1| Conceptual Paradigm of the Study|
2| A flow diagram of Portland cement production|
3| Schematic diagram of rotary kiln|
4| Schematic illustration of the pores in calcium silicate through different stages of hydration| 5| Rate of heat evolution during the hydration of Portland cement| 6| Schematic drawings to demonstrate the relationship between the water/cement ratio and porosity| 7| A plot of concrete strength as a function of the water to cement ratio| 8| Factory outlet hypo sludge|

9| Flow chart of the experimental study|

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

Over 300 million tons of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in Philippines. These materials are the major contributor to disposal and health hazards to our environment. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment (Palanisamy, 2010). Paper making industries generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibres can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low – quality paper fibres are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and "stickies" (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibres to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine – type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling (Srinivasan and Sathiya, 2010).

This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from...
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