Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure can be considered as an elevated pressure of the blood and arteries. Hypertension results from two major factors independent or combined which is the heart pumping blood with excessive force and/or the body's smaller blood vessels (known as the arterioles) narrow, so that blood flow exerts more pressure against the vessels' walls. When defining Hypertension, it is essential to know how blood pressure is measured and the numeric values used to classify and determine this disease. First, there is a systolic reading of a blood pressure, which is the top or first number and is when the heart is contracting to pump the blood around the body. Then, there is the diastolic reading of a blood pressure, which is the second or bottom number and is when the heart is at rest or in between beats. When the blood pressure is normal and healthy, the systolic measure will read 120 or below and the diastolic measure will read 80 or below. When the blood pressure is in the pre-hypertensive phase, the systolic measure will read 120-139 and the diastolic measure will read 81-90. Lastly, when the blood pressure is in the hypertensive stage, the systolic measure will read 140 or higher and the diastolic measure will read 91 or higher. Secondary hypertension consists of the ten percent of all cases and the exact cause is known and once treated, will go away. The causes for this disease would be kidney disease, adrenal gland disease, narrowing of the aorta, and pregnancy causing pre-eclampsia. Primary hypertension consists of the remaining 90 percent of all cases and has many risk factors and causes. However, in most cases of this disease, the exact cause is unknown. Early in the disease the individual normally has no symptoms. The risk factors include hereditary, race, sex, age, obesity, sodium sensitivity, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptives, physical inactivity, diet pills or amphetamines, smoking,...
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