Hyksos and Hittites
The Hyksos were a group of mixed semitic-Asiatics who settled in northern Egypt during the 18th century B.C. They seized power and ruled Egypt as the 15th dynasty for about 100 years. They had stronghold in Avaris, from where they could administer Egypt and collect taxes. During the rule of the Hyksos it was a time of peace and prosperity, and Egyptian religion was well respected.
Nothing can be found out on where the Hyksos came from, but it is a guess that they are either from Palestine or Syria. Although nothing is left of their buildings and monuments they had a lasting influence on Egyptian military technique, because they were the first to introduce a horse and a chariot. They also introduced the compound bow, improved battle-axes and advanced fortification techniques into Egypt.
The Hyksos rule was ended due to Theben revolt that spread northward under Kamose.
The Hittites ruled over the land of Hatti during the second millennium B.C. The language they spoke was Indo-European. Much of the Cappodocan plateau was in their control and they had lots of trades with they Assyrains. They also dominated the lands of Canaan and Levant during the 1200's.
The Hittites were patriarchal, and highly agricultural. They were probably the first to develop a substantial iron industry. The iron they used to trade with Assyrians, and also used it for weaponry. The Hittites were also known for their success in using a three-man chariot.
The Hittites rule came to an end when Sea Peoples in 700 b.c invaded them. From then on the Empire was broken into several kingdoms and with other growths such as the Assyrian Empire kept it from reuniting again.
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