1. Define the following terms:
a. Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere is the liquid water component of the Earth and it refers to all water found on, under, or over the surface of a planet. Often called the “water sphere”, it includes all the earth’s water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, soil, groundwater, and in the air. The hydrosphere covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth with 97% sea water and 3% fresh water. b. Hydrologic Cycle: The hydrological cycle is the endless circulation of water molecules transferring from the oceans and the land surface into the atmosphere by evaporation, dropped on the land as precipitation, and transferred back to the sea by rivers and groundwater. It is the constant movement of water through the earth system. c. Cryosphere: The cryosphere is the frozen water part of the Earth system. It is the scientific name for all the frozen water on the Earth’s surface: ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, land ice, frozen lakes, snow, permafrost, etc. It also plays a vital role in the earth’s climate.
2. Using the video tour of the Cryosphere list 5 important facts about water content and Antarctica. -Antarctica contains 90% of the Earth’s ice - 70% of the fresh water. -Antarctica ice averages 2.7 kilometers thick - 4.8 kilometers in some places. -Ice shelves hold 2% of Antarctic ice but cover 50% of the coastline. -Ocean currents and surface winds drive icebergs northward.
-Snowfall provides more than 75% of water resources in the West. -Permafrost covers 18% of exposed land in the Northern Hemisphere. -Altogether, the world’s ice sheets contain 77% of the global total of fresh water.
3. List the 8 areas where water is stored on the planet and give their percentages.
-The world’s oceans contain 97.2% of the water in the hydrosphere
2.8% of it is freshwater
-Ice caps and glaciers contain 2.15% of the world’s water
-Groundwater contains 0.63%