Hydrogen Research

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TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES

Potential for Hydrogen as a Fuel for Transport in the Long Term (2020 - 2030) - Full Background Report -

EUR 21090 EN

Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Potential for Hydrogen as a Fuel for Transport in the Long Term (2020 - 2030) - Full Background Report -

Matthias Altmann Patrick Schmidt Reinhold Wurster Martin Zerta Dr. Werner Zittel (Edited by Hector Hernandez)

March 2004

EUR 21090 EN

European Commission Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) Institute for Prospective Technological Studies http://www.jrc.es

Legal notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.

© European Communities, 2004 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN AS A FUEL FOR TRANSPORT IN THE LONG TERM (2020-2030) Full Background Report

i December 04, 2003

Preface
This study has been carried out by Ludwig Boelkow System Technik on behalf of the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC/IPTS). It is part of the wider activities of the JRC/IPTS in the field of techno-economic analysis of emerging technologies in transport. Its main objective is an analysis of the prospects of hydrogen and fuel cells and the boundary conditions for the wider introduction of hydrogen as a fuel for transport. Industry stakeholders, researchers and policy makers have been consulted in the process and the findings of the study were discussed in two workshops. Other European Commission services and the Institute for Energy of the JRC were actively involved in the supervision and guidance of the study. Hydrogen is often seen as the most promising option to replace fossil fuels in the long term. In the transport sector, it can be a suitable energy carrier and under certain conditions improve the environmental performance. World-wide energy demand will double in the next 50 years, and Europe still has very limited home-grown resources. The EU currently imports 50% of its oil, and, if nothing is done, this figure will rise to 70% in 20-30 years time. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies could contribute to improving Europe's energy security and air quality, whilst lessening climate change. Since many years, the EU has been supporting hydrogen & fuel cell research, and there is now a growing importance of this field, as reflected by the substantial increase in financial support. In November 2003 the European Commission Initiative for Growth included a "Quick Start Programme" of projects of public and private investment in infrastructure, networks and knowledge. This programme foresees a major ten year initiative for hydrogen-related research, production and use, with an indicative total budget of €2.8 billion of public and private funding. In addition, the European Commission launched the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Partnership in January 2004. The Partnership has the task of drafting a blueprint to smooth the EU's transition from a fossil fuel-based to a hydrogen-based economy, and its Advisory Council includes key players of the European hydrogen sector. Developing the new hydrogen society while gaining worldwide leadership will require a coherent EU strategy, which this European Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Partnership will help devise. This study describes a best-case scenario for hydrogen and fuel cells in transport and outlines the potential technical, economic and environmental benefits in the long term. The study also identifies the main obstacles and boundary conditions for such a wide-scale introduction. The results should be considered in the context of the boundary conditions under which the analysis has been carried out. Failure to meet these conditions would result in a significant reduction of the potential. In practical terms, this

ii December 04, 2003

POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN AS...
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