Hydrocarbon

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HOMOLOGOUS SERIES| ALKANE| ALKENE| ALCOHOL| CARBOXYLIC ACID| ESTER| GENERAL FORMULA| CnH2n+2, where n= 1,2,3,..| CnH2n, where n= 2,3,4,..| CnH2n+1OH, where n= 1,2,3| CnH2n+1COOH, where n= -0,1,2,3,..| CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1, where n= 0,1,2,3,.. and m= 1,2,3,..| PHYSICAL PROPERTIES| * MP & BP Size of hydrocarbon molecules inc, f.o.a inc, more heat overcome f.o.a * Density Mass per molecule inc faster than volume per molecule * Gas – liquidSize of hydrocarbon molecule inc, f.o.a stronger, mp&bp inc * Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent(covalent comp) * Insulator * Less dense than water| * MP & BP Size of hydrocarbon molecules inc, f.o.a inc, more heat overcome f.o.a * Density mass per molecule inc faster than volume per molecule * Gas – liquidSize of hydrocarbon molecules inc, f.o.a stronger, mp&bp inc * Insoluble in water * Insulator * Less dense than water| * MP&BP * Colourless liquid at RT * Volatile * Soluble in waterDissolve in organic compund * Less dense than water| * BP(118OC) * Colourless liquid at RT * Sharp & pungent smell * Soluble in water| * Colourless liquid at RT * Fragrant smell * Volatile * Insoluble in water * Less dense than water| STATE| First 4 alkanes (gas)| First 3 alkene(gas)| -| -| -| | | | | | |

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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES| * CombustionComplete- CO2 + H2OIncomplete- C+H2O, CO+H2O * Substitution-Alkanes+halogen(Cl2,Br2)-exposed to sunlight/UV-hydrogen replace by halogen * Cracking-Long chain alkane flow over catalyst(silica,SiO2,alumina, Al2O3-temperature: 500oC| * CombustionComplete- CO2 + H2OIncomplete- C+H2O, CO+H2O * Addition-halogenation, hydration, hydrogenation,hydrohalogenation, oxidation * PolymerisationCombine monomers to form polymers.| | | |
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