REPORT ON SPILLWAY & HYDRAULIC JUMP EXPERIMENT
| MATRIC NUMBER
1) MOHAMAD SHAHRUL IZAAN BIN AFANDI
2) MOHD KUSHAIRI BIN MOHAMMAD DARUS
3) NUR AMALIENA BINTI AHMAD PAKRI
4) NUR SOFIAH BTE HARUN
5) ROZITA BINTI SARIAN
Hydraulic jump is the natural phenomenon that always occurs at the open channel flow like river and spillway. This phenomenon occurred when a high velocity liquid discharge into a zone with a lower velocity of water that doesn’t have a slope steep enough to maintain the supercritical flow(high velocity liquid). The results, an abrupt rise occurred in the liquid surface. The rapidly flowing liquid will abruptly slowed and increase in height. This will converting the flow’s kinetic energy into potential energy, with some energy are permanently lost through confusion to heat. In an open channel flow, this demonstrated as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how shockwave occurred. The smooth transition is possible in open channel flow from subcritical to supercritical flow, but it’s not possible the other way around.
High velocity discharge
Spillway is the structure build to provide for the controlled released of flow from a dam into a downstream area. Spillways also acted as the dam savior as it will not let the flood water overtop and damage the dammed by release the flood water. The relation between the hydraulics jump and spillway is that the spillway is usually placed in between the supercritical flow a subcritical flow.
Open-channel flow is classified according to steadiness, a condition in relation to time, uniformity, and a condition in relation to distance. Flow is steady when the velocity at any point of observation does not change with time. However if it changes with time, the flow is called unsteady. At every instant, if the velocity is the same at all points along the channel, the flow is defined as uniform but, if it is not the same, the flow is called non-uniform. Non uniform flow which is steady is called varied while non-uniform flow which is unsteady is called variable. Flow occurs from a higher to a lower elevation by action of gravity. If the phenomenon is short, wall friction is small or negligible, and gravity shapes the flow behavior. Gravity phenomena are like hydraulic jump, flow over weirs, spillways, or sills, flow under sluices, and flow into culvert entrances. A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which is frequently observed in open channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface. The rapidly flowing liquid is abruptly slowed and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential energy, with some energy permanently lost through confusion to heat. In an open channel flow, this displays as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms. Some applications of hydraulic jump are usually hydraulic jump reverses the flow of water. This phenomenon can be used to mix chemicals for water purification. Hydraulic jump usually maintains the high water level on the downstream side. This high water level can be used for irrigation purposes. Hydraulic jump can be used to remove the air from water supply and sewage lines to prevent the air locking. It prevents the scouring action on the downstream side of the dam structure.It is very common in the field of hydraulics to use hydraulic jump. It is used to perform different functions. Some of the effects of the hydraulic jump are like it clear the surplus energy of water by acting as energy dissipator. Due to hydraulic jump, many noticeable disturbances in water flow such as...
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