Hydraulic Fracking

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Hydraulic Fracturing
(“Fracking”)

LAS 432 – Technology, Society, and Culture
Team B
Michael Griffin
Mark Hartwick
Alena Hutson
Kansas Gentry
Kevin Gracia

Professor Douglas McCoy
8/24/12

Contents
Thesis…………………………………………………………………………………Page 3 Abstract……………………………………………………………………………….Page 3 Hydraulic Fracturing Description…………………………………………………….Page 4 History of Fracking.....................……………………………………………………..Page 5 Cultural Context………………………………………………………………………Page 8 Pros……………………………………………………………………………………Page 8 Cons…………………………………………………………………………………..Page 11 Context Summary…………………………………………………………………….Page 16 Media Influence………………………………………………………………………Page 17 Fracking Fluids……………………………………………………………………….Page 18 Proppants……………………………………………………………………………..Page 22 Pumping and Blending Equipment…………………………………………………...Page 23 Fracture Treatment Designs…………………………………………………………..Page 24 Economic Considerations for Hydraulic Fracturing………………………………….Page 25 Variable Economic Issues…………………………………………………………….Page 20 Hydraulic Fracturing Guarantees many Benefits for Local Economy………………..Page 33 Ancillary Products and Business……………………………………………………...Page 35 Psychological Considerations and Sociological Effects…………………………….. Page 38 Political and Legal Influences………………………………………………………...Page 40 Environmental Concerns……………………………………………………………...Page 43 References…………………………………………………………………………….Page 49

Thesis
Fracking is a controversial new method The US is participating in to extract energy sources from our own land in an effort to cut down dependence on foreign energy.

Abstract
Fracking is in the center of a political debate due to the potential for pollution and the consumption of our current resources such as clean water and sand. In this paper we will “drill” deeper into the process of hydro fracturing. We will give a description of the process. We will discuss the political, sociological and environmental effects of fracking along with the benefits and drawbacks associated with the process. We will discuss the history of fracking, along with different items used in the fracking process including sand, water, proppants and chemicals. We will also discuss new jobs, products and entire businesses being created because of the fracking process.

Hydraulic Fracturing Description
According to dictionary.com hydraulic fracturing is “the process in which fractures in rocks below the earth's surface are opened and widened by injecting chemicals and liquids at high pressure: used especially to extract natural gas or oil” (Dictionary.com, 2012). The description of Hydro Fracturing or commonly known as fracking is fairly simple. Drill a hole into the ground. Pump some water into the ground. Release natural gas for human consumption. The process sounds simple enough. Well, as most things in this world fracking is much more complicated. Fracking takes an unbelievable amount of resources, manpower, and engineering. In return fracking creates jobs which help our embattled economy. Fracking offers the U.S. an independent source of energy free from the rest of the world’s influence. Fracking also creates ancillary jobs for additional products and equipment associated with the fracking process.

Fracking is the process of drilling into the earth’s surface and extracting natural gas in the shale below. This is done first by drilling vertically into the earth’s crust several thousand feet below the water line. The drill then heads horizontally continuing on until the drill hits the projected target several thousand feet below the earth’s surface. After the fracking target is reached, pipe is inserted into the drilled out hole. After the pipe reaches the drilled target, high pressure frac water mixed with “frac sand” and other additive components are pumped into the shale. This process allows shale to become unstable and open up, so natural gas can escape (Zdunczyk, 2012). Once gas is released, it is brought to the...
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