Hydrate Lab

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An ion is an atom or a molecule with a positive or a negative charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. Ionic solids are salts (such as NaCl) that are held together by a strong force of attraction between ions of opposite charge. Molecules are the smallest physical units of an element or a (chemical) compound. Ionic solids are also known as salts because salts are ionic compounds that are formed from a reaction between an acid and a base.

Hydrates are inorganic salts which contain specific numbers of water molecules. Not all hydrates contain simple formulas. According to Formula of a Hydrate, to be anhydrous is to be without water, or to have all water removed. Some hydrates can become anhydrous by heating them, meaning hydrates can be separated into salts and water after heating. An ionic hydrate is a hydrate with water molecules attached to a crystal lattice instead of being chemically bonded to the water molecules. This makes it anhydrous, because the hydrate can become an ionic solid and water due to the lack of chemical bonding.

The purpose of this lab is to identify the number of moles of water in an ionic hydrate by heating the ionic hydrate to remove water. The process is to record the tare weight of a clean crucible. According to WiseGEEK, tare weight is the weight of an object (such as a jar, a cup, or, in this case, a crucible) when it is empty. You will add 2g of the copper sulfate hydrate crystals into the crucible, and then you weigh the crucible with the copper sulfate hydrate crystals and record the data. You then heat the crucible with the hydrate in it with a Bunsen burner for slightly more than 10 minutes, and then you weigh and record the data into your data table. After the weighing, it is reheated for five more minutes, and again weighed and recorded. If the masses are not within 0.05g of each other, you reheat it for another two minutes, weigh the masses again, and record the data. Keep reheating it until the weights...
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