Hwc - Case Studies

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Human-Wildlife Conflict worldwide: collection of case studies, analysis of management strategies and good practices

Elisa Distefano

Acknowledgements
First and foremost, I wish to acknowledge Eve Crowley (SDAR) for her intellectual contributions as well as for her support and encouragement. I’m grateful to the support of another FAO staff member, Williamson Douglas (FORC), who initially suggested the idea of producing an article on one of the most recently debated issues: the human-wildlife conflict. His vision and expertise had been a major asset in shaping this report. Lastly, thanks are due to Zarina Douglas, who edited this final version. Her excellent work made the publication possible. Elisa Distefano

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Table of contents

Backgrou

% ' ( )

Species habitat loss, degradation Growing interest in eco! " Abundance and distribution of wild ! * + ,

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$

Overview of the humanAfrica

% - $$ % Lion and other carnivore conflict in Kenya ………..………………………………………. % . "& - /$ % 0 1 ' 0 ' % Elephant and lion conflict in Namibia………………………………………………………..( Asia ( . . * ! 2 3 . ( . . ! 2 4 5 ) . . Asian elephant conflict in China, Simao…………………………… ) . . 6 7 ! 2 8 " 9 . . 6 * 9 . .% 0 ! 2 :5 9 . South America………………………………………………………………… . . 0 3 . North America . . 0 1* 7 . Europe . . Wolf conflict in Italy……………………………………………… % Middle East .%. 4 ; " !

Management of conflict situations and different approaches: local solutions with global application……………………………………………… . Preventative strategies . . 7 $ + & $ , . . 4 '

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. . . . . . . . . .

Alternative high-cost livestock husbandry practices……………………………… : & 0 & Mitigative strategies . Compensation systems..…………………………………………………………… . ! . ! . &$ + 1* J 2 9 %9 $ $ ))% (C ))) (C

In this context, the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) implemented an elephant habitat conservation and local community development project aimed at enhancing the coexistence of indigenous people and wildlife. The project entailed micro-credit loans, environmental education, dissemination of alternative farming techniques, human safety awareness and habitat conservation. At completion of the pilot phase, the loans had been paid back, indigenous people had shifted to alternative farming and reduced the pressure on forests, while better tolerating elephants’ damage (Zang and W 2 9 , 9 Tigers and Asian elephants are a principal source of conflict in much of Asia (Nyhus & Tilson, 9 , 2 9 2 populations.

)

Tiger and Asian elephant conflict in India [Tigers (Panthera tigris), endangered; Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), endangered] In the Southern Indian state of Karnatake, the Bhadra Tiger Reserve hosts a large number of 29 99 . Data collection and surveys performed in $ ))% ))) level of economic impact due to HWC. The overall annual loss due to large feline (tigers and leopards) depredation is $ # & C & " 2 ? %C 7 detail is that although large carnivores had a considerable negative impact on the cattle population, the villages over compensated the loss with purchases. Besides, elephant damage to crops C +( 9 &2 , & ? 9 C al household income in the region + . 29 , 9 7 & & $ $ =& & H6 +9 $2 9 , / the extent, distribution and impact of the human-tiger conflict in Sumatra, by means of analysing data 9& Tiger conflict in Sumatra [Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), critically endangered] Nyphus and Tilson’s study revealed that the tiger conflict is more common in intermediate disturbance zones such as isolated human settlements surrounded by extensive tiger habitat than in high and low disturbance zones. In fact, as the authors underline, the overlap between tigers and humans is less common in logged, degraded and heavily used areas, or in protected forests such as in the Way Kambas National Park, where tigers are unable to leave the forest and human access is discouraged by natural barriers and the presence of forestry guards. However, this lack of conflict seems...
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