International University of Sarajevo
History of Architecture II
Assist. Prof. Dr. Amra Hadzimuhamedovic
Final Research Paper
Since the beginning of 1950s Friendensreich Hundertwasser was well known as a painter but after the 1970s he specially developed the theories of ecology and architecture. He was supporting the architecture that is suitable with nature and confortable for human being, besides he suggested the ecologic architecture instead of functional architecture. After the winning the competition in 1977, called Hundertwasser Haus project, Hundertwasser become very popular and famous as an architect like as a painter all over the World. In this research I tried to search the show influence of the War and effects of Friendensreich Hundertwasser‘s thoughts and ideas as an architect of the 20th century considering the future of architecture. Firstly, I will briefly explain the art of Europe after the Second World War, Austrian Architecture after the Second World War, and in third part will be about the Hundertwasser’s life and his works.
Picture: Hot springs, Bad Blumau (Austria)
1. THE ART OF EUROPE AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
Second World War left the shattered World behind it. The Europe divided the two parts as an East and West. West Europe effort to create a new culture, East block countries seized or adopted the viewpoint of the based on Soviet Union centralization. After the War, abstract painting became the dominant in the World especially in the beginning of 1950s and 1960s. It was obvious effect of the American abstract expressionism influence for this increasing point of art. These paintings that became popular in Europe and America were shoving the non-formal feature of art. Also these paintings, which are created by the instinctive emotions, were trying to expose the subconscious of artist and made them independent. The artists who are expressionist of this era were using the sand, glass, glass paste, and glue instead of paint. In this period there was a respond the artist who was showing the War’s destruction on their paintings from the young artists of 1960s. That is why they created many new trend of art such as pop art, op art or new realism. ın the end of 1960s, conceptual art appeared in this clash of art World by the Marcel Duchamp. After this conceptual art movement the definition of artwork has changed and become more specific for everyone’s understanding. I can say there were no limitation for the sculpture and painting. After the war there was a movement of architecture like in the painting. Destruction of the War was so much and it was providing a platform to design new styles of architecture for all Europe. Before that the world never needed this much of construction at the same time. For instance, 20% of polish population, 60% of Warsaw, and Germany 333 kilometer square of urban residential area had been lost in the War If we consider this situation, 2,5 million houses in Germany and in just Tokyo japan 710000 residential houses were totally destroyed. In addition to this many cities had been destroyed or disappeared from the Earth. People began to work on both industrial and residential buildings immediately after the War. Architects were trying to find new solutions for the constructions. Because of the War, It was not easy to find materials and qualified workers for the constructions. This situation caused to lean the prefabrications and standardization. Speed of construction and light of building had increased with this way. Modernism was the main style of this period. One of the most famous architects of this period Le Corbusier had requested to design for the French government, which he called the “unite d’habitation” for them as an example. This building consist of 337 parts including the...