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Notes for Humanities III
Absolutism

* Thomas Hogs- “Leviathan”
* State of Nature: Man before any government/community… Describes life as nasty & short, man is barbaric, and you are only alive as long as you can survive. * This starts the consent theory

* Sovereign- Total power, no limits
* Power comes from consent (community) NOT from god.
* Examples:
* Louis XIV (14th)- Ruled during the early 18th century -Considered himself the “Son King”
-Built palaces in Versa
-Said “I am the state”
-Very conceited
-wanted to create a French empire, was almost always in war
* Peter The Great
-Russian ruler
-Named an entire city after himself (unlike Louis XIV, who only named buildings after his name).
-Noticed how the Westerners dressed and their way of life and forced the Russians to transform into this image. From the clothing, music, to ship making.
-His own wife and son plotted against him, so he had them killed.
-“Old Believers”- People who didn’t want to change the traditional ways of the Russians
-“New Believers”- People who wanted see change within the Russian culture and lifestyle.
-Created colleges, taxed, and Russia was in war during his reign.

* Absolutist rulers

-Peter the great
-Louis XIV
-Frederick the great

* Frederick the great- (1713-1740) Russia
* Very “Spartan lifestyle” was all business.
* Paid for government expenses out of his own pocket.
* Ran everything by a timeline
* Increased the army
* Did NOT like going to war

* “General Directory of Finance War”
* Controlled everything except: Education etc…
* Had a network of spies
* Enjoyed reading Voltaire and watching plays

* Stewarts in Russia
* 4 Stewarts
* Insisted on ABSOLUTE POWER
* 1688- “The Glorious Revolution”
* Replacement of kings with more restricting powers, and more power to parliament. * Consent Theory
* Giving up everything
* Hobs: No right to rebel
* John Locke: Men have 3 inalienable rights (LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTY)
-PROPERTY was changed to THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS.

* Enlightenment (1700-1800)
* Questioning of all the “old truths” also called “Philosophies * Enlightenment period consisted of 2 main points: Empiricism & Reason * Human personality was malleable- able to be conformed and changed. * People are responsible for their choices

* Invented psychology, sociology etc.
* Deist- the belief that God created the Earth, then left. And the talk about God is in terms of what they see in nature. * Voltaire- Said “Theology demonstrates man’s insanity.” * He emphasized secularism, is the end to humanism

* Believed in free enterprise, supply, demand and economic decisions.

* People of the Enlightenment:
* Philosophers
* Descartes- Specific data was used to base “the truth” on. He said: “I think therefore I am.” * Spinoza- God is identical with nature. Natural cause and effect. He was interested in ethics, rejects wealth, fame, and pleasure. * John Locke- Theory of knowledge “Man obtains his/her information by using sensory receptors.” “Tabula Rasa- Man is born with a blank slate.” * Voltaire- Wrote satire, ridiculed the monarchy. Wrote about a Utopian society called “Candid”- reason & logic reign. Highest goal: Freedom. * Diderot- Wrote the 1st encyclopedia.

Said: “Man will not be set free until the last king is strangled.” * Rousseau- “Primitive man”- when man is living in a state of nature, is when he is truly free. Said: “Everywhere we have civilization, man is in chains.” * Moliere- Wrote “The Comedian”

* John Milton- “Paradise Lost”- Where he presented protestant values. * Jonathan Swift-...
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