Traditionally, there have been two answers to the problem of the relationship between the individual and his society. One is the social contract theory and the other is the organic theory, which we have already discussed in detail. According to the social contract theory, society is the result of an agreement or contract entered into by men who originally lived in a pre-social state. Thus society is made by man and he is more real than his creation. On the other hand, according to the organic theory, society is an organic. Just as the parts of an animal body are functionally related and none can exist isolated from the rest, similarly, the members of society are functionally related to each other and no one can exist without society. Hence, the society is more real than the individual is. The relationship between the individual and the society is not one sided as these two theories seem to indicate. Before we proceed to examine the true relationship between the individual and the society, we may just see in what sense man can be called a social animal. Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, says, "Man is a social animal. He who lives without society is either a beast or a God". Actually, man is by nature and necessity, a social animal, man cannot survive in the absence of society. Society is indispensable for human race. Professor Park says, "Man is not born human but to be made human". Human nature is the result of social interaction in a cultural milieu. Man can be called a social animal on the basis of three important grounds mentioned-below. 1. Man is social by nature
Firstly, man is a social animal by nature. The nature of human being is such that he cannot afford to live alone. No human being is normally developed in isolation. The essential qualities of human nature such as the capacity to acquire knowledge, to learn language, enquire and think; respect and regard, play, and work, help and the like are developed in society only. These capacities are revealed through social interaction. The human infant comes into the world as a biological organism with animal needs. He is gradually molded into a social being and learn social ways" of acting and feeling through the society. Mac Iver has cited three cases in which human infants were isolated from all social relationships to make experiments about man's social nature, it proves that man is a social animal by nature. (i) Case of Kaspar Hauser
Kaspar Hauser, a young German boy was born in 1911. After his birth, due to the political conspiracy, he lived in isolation in the forest of Nurmberg until he reached the age of seventeen. He was brought out in 1928 and left in the German city. In his case it was found that at the age of seventeen he could hardly walk, had the mind of an infant and could mutter only a few meaningless phrases. He could not distinguish between inanimate objects and living beings. His brain development was found to be subnormal. Inspite of his subsequent education he could never make himself a normal man. (ii) Case of Amala and Kamala
Amala and Kamala, two Hindu children in India were taken away by a she wolf. They were found in a wolf-den in 1920, Kamala was eight years old-when she was discovered her brother Amala was only two years old. The younger brother died within a few months of discovery. But Kamala survived until 1929. Here case history in human traits when she was discovered, she could walk only on all four legs like a wolf. She learned no language. She was growling like a wolf. She was shy of other human beings and afraid of them. It was only after careful and sympathetic training she could learn some rudimentary social habits. She had learnt some simple speeches, eating and dressing habits and the like. Kamala considered herself as the wolf's child. She lacked the sense of human selfhood when she was first found. But the sense of human selfhood gradually emerged. Thus, Mac...