Human Settlement

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What is Human Settlement?
* The totality of the human community whether city/village with all the social, material, organizational, spirit and cultural elements that sustain it. * The fabric of Human settlements consists of physical elements and services to which the elements provide the material support. * It refers to cities, town, villages and other concentrations of human populations which inhabit a given segment/area of the environment. It associated with numerous and complex environmental, pollution and living condition problems for planning and management. The physical components:

* Shelter : The structures of different shapes, sizes, types and material erected by mankind of security, privacy, and protection from the element. * Infrastructure: The complex networks designed to deliver to or removed from our shelter people, goods, energy or information. * Services: cover those required by a community for the fulfillment of its functions as a social body such as education, health, culture, welfare, recreation and nutrition.

HOUSING refers to a whole collection of things that come packaged together, nt just 4 walls and a roof, but a specific location in relation to * Work & services
* Neighbours & neighbourhoods
* Property rights & privacy provisions
* Income & investment oppurtunities
* Emotional/psychological symbols & support

Approaches :
1. Biological approach - habitat -interaction between organisim and its environment -water, food, shelter, procreation 2. Ecological approach - man -man & men - man & environment -man & creator 3. Spatial approach - location of man and his activities -growth & sprawl

Definition of urban settlement :
* Population size & density
* Social & economic indicators
* Administrative or political status
* Function & services
* Urban culture

Contributing factors of urbanization:
* Production of natural resources
* Rural-urban migration
* Centralized function and economic development
* Development of rural areas
* Natural increase of population
* Others : - expansion of boundary - political decision Rural to Urban shift
* Tonnies (1855-1936)
* Two forms of social organization - community - society * Community to society
~ arose with commerce and capitalism
~ serves the onterest of merchant-capitalist who trade commodities based on contracts, not friendship or blood ties

Community
* Traditional (prior to revolution)
* Bound tgt by common values, scared traditional, blood ties * Share physical space, common and thoughts
* Linked by kinship, land,neighborhood friendship
* Family : primary social unit

Society
* Rise with industrialization, capitalism, and cities
* Lack of close-knit family and friendship ties
* Human relation based on contracts and laws
* No attachment to land and neighnorhood, money matters
* Money economy determines human interaction
* Individualism not community interest
Rural-urban dichotomy 二分法/continuum 统一法
* Occupational differences
* Environmental differences
* Size & density of communities
* Differences in social mobility 流动性
* Differences in social stratification 阶层形成
* Differences in social interaction
Rural settlement : A collection of dwelling located in an rural area Urban settlement : A collection of dwelling located in an urban area Urban area : an area with an increased density of human- created structures in comparison to the area surrounding it Urban density :

* Refer to the no. of ppl inhabiting a given urbanized area * Different from other measures of population
* Very specific measurement of population of urbanized area * Excluding non urban and users (eg: regional open space, agriculture and waterbodies) Malaysian experience :
What is the real conflict in Malaysian urban society?
*...
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