Hamdard institute of education and social sciences
EMERGING ISSUES IN EDUCation
Human Rights ---- Children rights
"Maybe we're all born knowing we have rights - we just need to be reminded” --- Romanian HRE trainer
Human Rights can be defined as those basic standards without which people cannot live in dignity as human beings. Human rights are the foundation of freedom, justice and peace. Their respect allows the individual and the community to fully develop. They are "rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled". Human rights are certain moral guarantees that people in all countries and cultures allegedly have simply because they are people. Calling these guarantees “rights” suggests that they attach to particular individuals who can invoke them, that they are of high priority, and that compliance with them is mandatory rather than discretionary.
You are a human being. You have rights inherent in that reality. You have dignity and worth that exist prior to law. --- Lyn Beth Neylon
Human rights are frequently held to be universal in the sense that all people have and should enjoy them, and to be independent in the sense that they exist and are available as standards of justification and criticism whether or not they are recognized and implemented by the legal system or officials of a country.
An alternative explanation was provided by the philosopher Kant. He said that human beings have an intrinsic value absent in inanimate objects. To violate a human right would therefore be a failure to recognize the worth of human life.
A right is not what someone gives you; it's what no one can take from you. --- Ramsey Clark
Human rights are basic freedoms and welfare of all world citizens, with which governments have no rights to interfere. Every person has to live his or her life in accordance with the Universal Charter, irrespective of the creed, religion, territory and race. The development of human rights has its roots in the struggle for freedom and equality everywhere in the world. The basis of human rights - such as respect for human life and human dignity - can be found in most religions and philosophies.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
• Human rights do not have to be bought, earned or inherited, they belong to people simply because they are human - human rights are 'inherent' to each individual. • Human rights are the same for all human beings regardless of race, sex, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin. We are all born free and equal in dignity and rights - human rights are 'universal'. • Human rights cannot be taken away; no one has the right to deprive another person of them for any reason. People still have human rights even when the laws of their countries do not recognize them, or when they violate them - for example, when slavery is practiced, slaves still have rights even though these rights are being violate - human rights are 'inalienable'. • People live in dignity, all human rights are entitled to freedom, security and decent standards of living concurrently - human rights are 'indivisible'.
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Rights can be put into three categories:
1. Civil and political rights (also called 'first generation' rights). These are 'liberty-orientated' and include the rights to: life, liberty and security of the individual; freedom from torture and slavery; political participation; freedom of opinion, expression, thought, conscience and religion; freedom of association and assembly.
2. Economic and social rights (also called second generation rights). These are 'security-orientated' rights, for example the rights to: work; education; a reasonable standard of living; food; shelter and health care.
3. Environmental, cultural and developmental rights (also called third generation rights)....