Q. 1 Explain briefly the Computer Integrated Manufacturing.
Ans. 1 Computer Integrated Manufacturing integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked. Activities include engineering design,production planning, shop control, order processing, material control, distribution etc. Information flow across all functions takes place with the help of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution and feed back happen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted rapidly. This process helps in rapid production and also reduce indirect costs. As response times decrease, customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps in avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilization of space. Bar coded labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices and display the status on monitors. This information is available to all concerned personnel responsible in planning, marketing etc. so that they will be aware of the status of any order and if expediting is needed to meet deadlines, they will be able to seek intervention. Identifying shortages, ensuring faster deliveries becomes easy with CIM.
One of the keys to success in themanufacturing business is to lessen errors and to enhance productivity. The more one can produce with fewer flaws, the more one can make at the bottom line. Over a period of time factory owners have integrated computer systems in order to streamline the production process. CAD, or computer aided design, has been able to aid the operators in the formulation and blueprints of more sophisticated products and technology.
In the CIM system some processes will be different. Data entry will now be stored in hard drives. This will allow for the manipulation and the retrieval of the data with a simple keystroke. The means by which the processing of data into the production of products will also be streamlined within hardware and software. This will allow operators to alter and enhance programs in order to improve products. The CIM system will also provide the necessary algorithms to bring all the data together. The data will then be able to intermingle with the sensor and modification components of the system.
While the CIM system is the optimal choice to aid in the manufacturing process, it does come with a unique set of challenges. The greatest challenge is to get all the different machines within the factory to work on the same system. In the typical factory, there are a variety of machines that perform different tasks, that are made by a variety of suppliers. The issue is to get every one of these machines to accept the programming, and tasks from one mainframe computer.
The second challenge of the CIM system is encapsulated within the data itself. While many operators may be lost on the actual production floor, there will be a need for operators to maintain the integrity of the data that is transmitted to the machines. The challenge is in acquiring competent individuals who can assure that all the data within the system is at its optimum operating integrity.
The third, and final challenge that has been encountered in the use of the CIM system is process control. This entails assuring that the whole process runs smoothly. This particular challenge ties the data entry people, the programmers, and the production operators together. The factory will need to assure that the individuals working with the system throughout the factory are competent and knowledgeable. These individuals will need to be well trained, and probably need to update their training periodically.
The goal of the CIM system is to eliminate the waste within the manufacturingprocess. This is done by taking the design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and distribution departments and interlink them with the factory floor, material...
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