(Robbins: Coulter 2005) defines recruitment as the process of locating, identifying and attracting capable applicants for available positions.
Recruitment may also be defined as the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization. (personal.kent.edu)
WHY IS RECRUITMENT IMPORTANT?
Successful, efficient recruitment, benefits organisations in that it increases it chances of gaining and thus increasing the ever important economic theory of the human capital factor. (Mullins, 1999) The human capital theory suggests that education or training raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skills, hence raising workers' future income by increasing their lifetime earnings (Becker, 1964). One of the many adverse consequences of poor recruitment is the possibility of a high level of staff turnover. Not only does this lead to increased direct costs, it also has a disruptive effect on the use of managerial time. In addition, a very important intangible cost is the effect of high staff turnover on the morale, motivation and job satisfaction of staff and on the level of organisational performance and customer satisfaction. (Mullins, 1999)
When deciding what method of recruitment to use, it is suggested that an organisation thinks about where their employees currently come from/ prevailing market, type of position, and their budget. For example, "Does the prevailing market consist of colleges or universities, existing employees, referrals or volunteers" and "Is the position, managerial, academic, technical, research or specialist?" www.hru.uts.edu.au Internal recruitment involves existing employees and volunteers who are given an opportunity to apply for a new job opening. The advantages of this method are that it serves as a reward to employees for past performance, gives an employee the opportunity for career development, retains the organisation's investment in the employee, reduces the amount of time necessary to orient a person to the new position and reduces the cost of recruitment, morale improves knowing that the company promotes from within and internal applicants already are socialized in the company's culture and way of conducting business. This can mean that training time can be reduced. (www.allbusiness.com) The main disadvantages of this method are that it provides a limited number of people to select from and it reduces the opportunity for increasing diversity within the organisation. www.hrcouncil.ca Employee referral involves employees being asked to recommend a person for the job opening and is an informal method of internal recruitment. The advantages the organisation enjoys from this method are that the quality of employee referral is usually high because employees usually refer people that they are confident would be a good match for the position and the organisation as not to defame their status and people recruited by staff usually have some understanding of the organisation....