Human Resources

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What is Motivation?
–A state of mind, desire, energy or interest that translates into action“ A strong behavioral component
–It leads to action
–Managers can influence motivation
–It is a key to performance

Importance of Motivation
Motivation impacts PERFORMANCE
Performance = Ability x Motivation x Opportunity
–Ability – what a person can do: a competence & skill –Motivation – interest in doing something include Internal motivation; External motivation –Opportunity – the set-up, tools, etc.

Job Satisfaction = Motivation to work
Many people equate the two:
Job Satisfaction – an attitude towards work
–Pay, Co-workers,Supervision, Promotion, etc.
Motivation to work = Job Satisfaction + Individual NEEDS
Individual NEEDS: Based on personality and values for things lacking & desired

Individual NEEDS relate to Motivation
1.Motivation Theories based on NEED:
–Maslow‘s pyramide
–McClelland 3 Needs
–McGregor‘s X & Y theory
Almost all early motivation theories are based on NEEDS.

2.Process Theories of Motivation:
–Expectancy theory
–Path-Goal theory
–Equity theory
Needs to not impact work motivation

From Need to Process Theories
Performance = Ability x Opportunity x Motivation to work
Motivation to work = Job Satisfaction + Individual NEEDS
Individual NEEDS combine
* –Individual needs
* –Cultural/social value based needs
Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs: •Self-actualization, Esteem Need, Love and Belonging Needs, Security Need, The physiological Needs McClellands Three Needs Theory
* Need for Achievement: Desire to do things better, like challenges * Need for Power: Want to influence others, very competitive * Need for Affiliation: Social relationships are important, being liked * Effective managers are: Medium – high – low!

Culture and Motivation
What motivates people to work depends on the culture.“
How cultures are different is defined in:
–Work by Hall (1976)
–Work by Kluckhohn and Strodbeck (1961)
–Work by Hofstede (1980)
–Work by Trompenaars (1994)

How to motivate!
Three aspects to address: the individual, the job itself, the organization. –The individual
* Started with needs of individuals based on:
* –Personality
* –Characteristics and Traits
* –Values
* Start with McGregor‘s Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X: People dislike work, Must be forced to work, Must be directed & controlled, Managers must direct and control Theory Y: People work with pleasure, Are self-directed and internally motivated, Have creativity & want to learn, Managers support workers to reach goals

–The job itself:
Core Job Characteristics: skill variety, responsibility, etc. Two Factor Theory – relates Job Satisfaction & Motivation * Hygiene Factors can lead to Dissatisfaction with work or to „Not dissatisfied“, but not to Motivation to work * Motivators lead to Motivation to work

–The organization

Vroom‘s Expectancy Framework
Vroom developed the NEED theories into Process theory of individual expectations. Motivation happens when:

Effort Performance Outcome

Instrumentality Expectancy Value
of
Outcome
Individual needs
Personality
Culture

What is current understanding?
Needs do not impact work motivation
Needs do impact how Outcomes are valued
The Value of Outcomes need to be assessed.
Fish bone chart
Ability
>----------- Performance
Motivation opportunity
Service value chain: Employees satisfaction-> employees loyalty -> quality customer service-> customer satisfaction -> customer loyalty -> more company resources -> employees satisfactio Leadership

Defined
–Good leadership consists of doing less and being more;
–Of the best leaders, when the work is done and the goal attained, the people say: ‚We did it ourselves!‘, and...
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