Human Resources

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the management of an organization’s workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selecting, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically serve as the company’s primary liaison with the employees’ representatives. HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researches began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, technological advancement and further research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion.

In human resource managements, there is Training and Development. Training is a systematic process of altering the behavior, knowledge and skills of employees in a direction that will achieved organization goals while Development is learning that goes beyond todays job which consist a more long term focus (Nadler, 1984). It is an important part of HRM activities. Reasons for emphasizing the need for training and development of personnel include creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization and enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. This will built a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale. The expansion of the human resource into a new program would be ensured adequately. Research has shown a specific benefit that an organization receives from training and developing its workers including the increase of productivity, increases efficiency resulting in financial gains, improvement performance on the job given etc. 2.0 IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

A training needs analysis should be carried out before any action is taken to organize a training programme. A training need as the gap between an actual situation and the desired situation (Ho, 2003). The actual situation may refer to job performance, knowledge, skills, behaviour, or attitudes. Without a clear answer for which type of workers need training or part that lacks that need to be trained will be given as an end to itself. In fact, when training is given to employees who are not in need of it, there is a very real danger of increasing frustration on the part of worker. A course participant with the negative feelings towards the programme may become disruptive, uncooperative and generally demotivating to others attending the same course (Mondy, 2012) All employees will need some basic skills. The companies may need to carry out essential training to enable employees to fulfil their roles. For example, show them how to use your telephone system, or provide them with the basic health and safety training. Once the basics have been covered, the companies may wish to develop the staff further and identify their specific training needs. An effective training needs assessment will help direct resources to areas of greatest demand. The assessment should address resources needed to fulfil organizational mission, improve productivity, and provide quality products and services. A needs assessment is the process of identifying the "gap" between performance required and current performance. When a difference exists, it explores the causes and reasons for the gap and methods for closing or eliminating the gap. A complete needs assessment also considers the consequences for ignoring the gaps (Mondy, 2012).

There are three levels of a training needs assessment:
Organizational...
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