Human Resource Management Notes Part 1

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Training, Orientation and Developement

Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge, and motivation of present employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and employment requirements. Training must be closely linked to other human resource activities: Employment planning- can closely identify skill shortages. It can be filled throught staffing or the strenghtening of skills of the current work force. Performance appraisal- helps to identify gaps between desired and existing behaviors or outcomes. These gaps often become the targets of training. Motivation- of employees to acquire and use new skills

Internal staffing- career management requires an integrated training strategy that prepares employees for future internal job opportunities. The first training experiance employees have is their initial oriantation to the organization. Employees generally report that most of their developement occurs on the job, not in company-sponsored training programs. THE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO TRAINING

* Organizational analysis
* Task and KSA analysis
* Person analysis
Instructional objectives
Development of criteria
Selection and design of instructional programs
Use of ealuational models
Needs assessment
Tr. and Dev.

Human resource planning objectives are the starting point for training needs analysis. Gaps between desired and actual situation can become training objectives under 2 conditions: 1. Must be identified as important enough to merit organizational attebtion 2. Must be adressable throught training

* Organiztional analysis
Involves examining the organization’s broad directions and needs to determine how training can fit in. The learning organization is an organization that thrives on uncertanity, empower middle managers, constantly strive to become better, and foster corporate loyalty. The learning organization provides examples of organizational-level needs that might be addressed through training. Organizational needs can be cathegorized into 3 groups: Organizational maintenance- aim to ensure a steady supply of critical skills. Organizational efficiency- is related to efficiency objective in the diagnostic model. Profits, labor costs, quality of output, and other measures might signal gaps that training can help to close. Organizational culture- reflects the value system or philosophy of the organizatio. Examining this factor can help identify areas where training can help clarify or gain acceptance of organizational values among employees. * Job, Task, and Knowledge-Skill- Analysis

Based on job description and job specification. These documents offer a valuable source of information on potential training needs, and several job analysis approachas can specifically provide information on the skills or knowledge needed to carry out job tasks. * Person analysis

Examining individual characteristics to determine whether they match those needed to accomplish organization and individual objectives. The most obvious characteristic to examine would be employee performance, and the appraisal process would be a logical place to identify gaps between desired and actual employee behaviour. IDENTIFYING TRAINING OBJECTIVES

Objectives and evalluation standards go hand in hand. Important decisionsObjectives must be measurable and specific enough to serve as measures of success. A deadline must be set. Objectives must reflect outcomes important to key constituets. Objectives and criteria for training must meet the standards: 1. They must reflect information that will corret future decisions 2. They must correct important decisions

3. The cost of geathering the information must not exceed its benefits

Process of selecting and designing training, and then implementing it. The process involves establishing conditions conducive to learning,...
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