Human Relations Movement

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The main concern of this assignment is the human relations movement and how it eradicated the influence of the classical and scientific management in the industry today. This approach raises some important questions about what are the keys function of the classical-scientific management theory, and the contrast of the worker in the classical-scientific and behavioral management. Some additional points need to be considered such as the Hawthorne studies and also the most important aspect covered is the Industrial Revolution that had the biggest influence on management. The Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century led to a widespread growth of machinery and mass production throughout England and later in Europe and the United States. During this era, there was a change in the scale and method of production, along with logistical problems facing businesses, forcing them to adopt more systematic approaches to management. From this came firstly the scientific approach to managing production processed and later the evolution of the behavioral approach to management. The roots of modern management lie within a group of practitioners and writers who gave their contributions to management. One of the most representatives of the classical era is Henri Fayol who spend most of the time working as a mining engineer but also later on, developing management theories. Fayol developed the first, widely accepted definition of management. “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control” (Henry Fayol, 1916). The definition of management did not remain unchanged and other scientists developed new points of view regarding what is management. The year that the modern management theory was born was 1911.This year was the year that Frederick Winslow Taylor which is known as the father of scientific management, published the book “Principles of Scientific Management”, where it was described the theory of scientific management which is the use of the scientific method to define the one best way for a job to be done. Taylor wanted to create a mental revolution among the workers and management by defining clear guidelines for improving production efficiency. Taylor states that the role of managers is to plan and control, and that of workers to perform within the instruction. Taylor’s most prominent disciples were Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Frank was a construction contractor, while Lillian was a psychologist. Studying work arrangements helped to eliminate wasteful hand-and-body motions, also experimented in the design and use of proper tools and equipment for optimizing work performance. Another associate of Taylor was an engineer named Henry L. Gantt who extended some of Taylor’s original ideas and added some new ones. For example, Gantt devised an incentive system that gave workers a noun for completing for completing the job in less time that allowed standard. Gantt is most noted for creating a graphic bar chart that could be used by managers as a scheduling device for planning and controlling work. Fayol wrote during the same time as Taylor, but the attention was directed at the activities of all managers, and wrote from personal experience. Fayol argued that management was an activity common to all human undertaking in business, in government, and even at home. Max Weber was a German sociologist that developed a theory of authority structure and described organizational activity on the basis of authority relations. Weber recognized that this ideal bureaucracy didn’t exist in reality, but that it represented a selective reconstruction of the real world and this was a response to the abuses that were within organizations. Weber believed that this model could remove the ambiguity, inefficiencies and patronage that characterized most organizations at that time. Many of the components of Weber’s bureaucracy are still inherent in large organizations today. The fundamental premise of...
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