Explaining the various factors that contributed to the cropping up and growth of towns can be done almost effortlessly. The process through which populations moved from the rural areas to the cosmopolitan areas leading to the development of ancient civilizations and modern day towns and cities is known as urbanization (Demina, 2006). Urbanization was a gradual process in the olden days but is a rapid revolutionary process in the contemporary world. The speed at which urbanization is taking place in modern times is higher than ancient times, and life in the world today is more competitive in every aspect. The rush for resources and advancement in technology exaggerates the rate at which modern day urban centers are cropping up. This paper strives to explain the various benefits and challenges associated urbanization Human population ant the environment. Before focusing on the benefits and challenges associated with urbanization, it is indispensable to understand the causative factors of the phenomenon. The idea of urbanization can be traced back to the agrarian revolution. The earliest urban centers were established in Mesopotamia which is the present day Iran (Moomaw, 1986). The major cause of urbanization in this region was agriculture which increased food production. Food was a necessity and still is today. As such people from various areas in Asia moved into Mesopotamia and established settlements. It is in these urban centers that trade began as well as other social institutions like religious establishment. Later on industrialization became the major factor behind the urbanization in Europe and other Eurasian countries. Other factors leading to urbanization include concentration of resources, proximity to water, proximity to infrastructure and favorable climates.
Among the most prominent benefits of urbanization is the idea of availability of employment opportunities. The urban centers are usually the centers of commerce, industry, social...
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