Human Physiology Paper

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Integumentary System

Human Physiology
Table of Contents

History……………………………………………Page 3 Composition of the Skin…………………………Page 18 Skin Color………………………………………Page 22 Aging……………………………………………Page 25 Medical…………………………………………Page 28 Conclusion………………………………………Page 36 Bibliography……………………………………Page 37

History:
Skin is a protective organ that covers the body and merges with the mucous membranes at the openings of the body such as the mouth and anus. It is attached loosely to underlying tissues. It also varies in thickness from 0.5mm on the eyelids to 1/7 inch or more on the palms and soles. Function of the skin is to protect the body from damaging external agents like extremes of temperature and invades organisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Specialized nerve receptors in the skin allow the body to sense pain, touch, and pressure. Skin plays a role in temperature regulation, protection from ultraviolet light, in the manufacture of vitamin D and in attracting the opposite sex.

Egyptians:
Using facial decoration to gain attention or intimidate enemies in battle are cultural constants in history. There is so much evidence that proves skin care and cosmetics have been with us for a very long time. The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics is from Ancient Egypt about 6000 years ago. It was an important aspect of their daily culture and it was incorporated in their mummification and burial traditions. Archaeologists found small clay pots of makeup in even the most humble tombs. Cosmetics protected the Egyptians from the elements, warded off the sun’s burning rays, and repelled insects. The application of makeup also served as a ritual to honor their gods and goddesses.

The Ancient Egyptians had a lot of makeup formulas. Metal ore, copper, and semi-precious stones were ground into powder for eye-shadow. Adding water, oil, or animal fat made the color darker and gave the eye a more dramatic look. Kohl is dark eyeliner in Egyptian statuettes, paintings, and mummy cases. Kohl is a mixture of lead, copper, burned almonds, soot, and others. Clay called red ochre that was ground and mixed with water was for lips, cheeks, and nails. Makeup was stored in special jars that were kept in makeup boxes. Women would carry the makeup boxes to parties and keep them under their chairs. Egyptians believed that makeup could ward off evil spirits and improve the sight so the poor even wore eye makeup. Henna is a natural dye for body decoration and hair coloring that is still used today. It comes from a shrub whose dried crushed leaves create a deep orange-red powder. When it is mixed with water, a paste is formed that is a temporary dye that colors the skin or hair for a few weeks. Both women and men used henna to stain their lips a deep red. Archaeologists discovered traces of henna on the fingernails of mummified pharaohs. The ancients created products using dangerous materials like mercury and white lead. The use of lead may have aided in combating eye infections like conjunctivitis.

The Royalty of Ancient Egypt, 3000 BC- 1070 BC:
Many Egyptian queens were renowned for mastering the finer pints of skin care and beauty. Cleopatra is considered to have been one of the most beautiful women who ever lived. She was a student of beauty techniques and authored one of first books of beauty secrets. Her secrets included bathing in milk and rubbing skin with aloe vera. Queen Nefertiti and her two daughters were also renowned for their beauty and they were buried with cosmetic implements, such as tubes of kohl. Queen Thutu was a pioneer of makeup and skin care techniques. She used pumice stones to exfoliate the skin and she had a special bronze dish that was used to mix herbs and plant compounds into beauty ointments and eye shadows.

The skin care techniques weren’t only important to queens, but were an important part of the Egyptian court life too. The hot, dry desert took its toll on...
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