1) INTRO AND HOST PARASITE INTERACTIONS
1. What is a symbiosis?
What is each participant in a symbiotic relationship called? What is a trophic interaction?
Give some examples.
2. What type of dependency exists between the participants of a phoretic relationship? Does the phoront benefit from the relationship?
3. Explain commensalism.
How does the commensal benefit?
Can these organisms survive independently?
4. What is mutualism?
Can these partners survive independently?
What type of dependence exists between the partners?
Give some examples.
5. How is each symbiont affected in an exploitation interaction? How do a predator and a parasitoid differ?
What is the usually effect of a micropredator on its host? How do micropredators and parasites differ?
6. What is parasitism?
Which partner is harmed?
Give the definition of parasitism.
What does the parasite get out of the relationship?
What does it mean that the parasite has greater reproductive potential than the host? What are some characteristics of a parasitic disease?
7. What is a parasite?
For each of the following, identify whether it could be a parasite according to the traditional definition.
8. Define the following:
direct life cycle
indirect life cycle
9. How are parasites usually distributed within their host population? What does an overdispersed distribution look like (draw a graph of parasites per host within a host population). What are some explanations for this type of distribution?
10. What is the environment for a parasite?
What are innate host defenses?
What are some external barriers to parasite invasion?
What is specific immunity?
What is an epitope?
11. Why is a life cycle in understanding parasites?
What is the significance of the arrows in a life cycle diagram? What is the difference between direct and indirect life cycles?
READING ASSIGNMENT AND QUESTIONS
Please read the “Definitions” section of chapter 1 (pp.2 – 5) 1. How does a facultative parasite differ from an obligatory one?
2. What are somatic antigens and metabolic antigens that are associated with parasites? What effect do these antigens have on the host?
3. Study Figure 1-1.
What happens to the host as parasite density increases?
How does this graph relate to the overdispersion of parasite populations in the host population?
4. What is a zoonosis?
5. Describe the symbiotic relationship which occurs between termites and the flagellated protozoans which inhabit their gut.
1. Which of the following is always physiologically dependent on the relationship with its symbiotic partner?
2. Most parasite populations are overdispersed in their host population. This means that
A. most hosts who are infected produce fewer offspring than uninfected individuals
B. most hosts harbor few parasites, while a few hosts are infected with many parasites
C. all of the hosts harbor approximately the same number of parasites
D. most hosts are infected with many parasites, while a few hosts harbor only a small number of parasites
E. there is no relationship between hosts and the number of parasites they harbor
1. E; 2. B
2) PARASITES AND HUMAN HEALTH
1. According to the CDC, what are the leading causes of death in the US? Do bacteria, viruses, or parasites cause many of these diseases? Why should we care about parasites?
2. According to the WHO, what are the leading causes of death in underdeveloped countries? Why are diarrheal so dangerous and which age group is most severely...