(And its relation to The Giver)
Memory, which consists of a lot of difficult processes, gives human beings the ability to store and retrieve information. Psychologists claim that there are three general stages of memory – encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the first very important step when some kind of information should become a memory. It is the process of converting that information into a form that can be stored into the human brain. There are several main types of encoding – visual (by using pictures and images), acoustic (by sound effects and voices), tactile (depending on feelings), and semantic (referring to meaning). The next step is to retain the encoded information and store it in the human brain; this is the process of storage. The last step is the retrieval - the process of recalling already encoded and stored information from the past. Of course, people cannot always retrieve that information successfully and they often cannot remember certain memories.
Sometimes our brain is not able to retrieve old information and that can often cause the loss or forgetting of some memories. There are several hypotheses why people cannot remember certain information. According to one of the theories, called the decay theory, when our brain produces new memories, a memory trace is created. Without repeating or rehearsing a memory, the traces fade and we forget the information. But since it is proved that unremembered memories stay in our long-term memory, this...