| Repetition, achieving consistent results
| * Validity
| Obtaining results consistent with what was being tested, correctly testing the aim, keeping everything else constant
| * Accuracy
| How accurate results are
* Dependent variable
| Relies on independent variable, plotted on y-axis
| * Independent variable
| One you change, plotted on x-axis
What is the Human Genome?
The human genome comprises a sequence of approximately 3 billion component parts, called nucleotides, which are organized into DNA molecules—the double helix. The nucleotides, which serve as the alphabet for the language of life, are represented by just four letters: A, C, G, and T, corresponding to adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. The nucleotide alphabet codes for the sequence of amino acids the body will use to build proteins. Combinations of three nucleotides indicate one of twenty possible amino acids (for example, CCT codes for the amino acid glycine), so sets of nucleotide triplets form the instructions that cells use to build proteins. These proteins perform the work of the cells from development throughout life, contributing to both our physical attributes and many of our less tangible features, such as behaviour, learning, and predisposition to disease. A segment of a DNA molecule that codes for one complete protein is called a gene. The human genome is carried on 23 different chromosomes—or DNA molecules. What is the HGP?
* Begun in 1990, completed in 2003 (earlier than expected due to technology advances) * Coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health * Goals of the project:
* identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, * determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, * store this information in databases
* improve tools for data analysis
* transfer related technologies to the private sector
* address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. * To help achieve these goals, researchers also studied the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms. These include the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse. * First large scientific undertaking to address potential ELSI implications arising from project data. * All goals were achieved with project completion in 2003 5.4.1 Discuss the benefits of the Human Genome Project
The HGP was aimed to explore and map the full set of human instructions on the human genome. A genome is the full set of genes on an organism’s chromosomes. The project had two phases: 1. Mapping the 20-25k genes in the genome- Mapping the genome involves 3 stages * Locating the chromosome on which each gene is found (genetic mapping) * Identifying the exact position of each gene on the chromosome (physical mapping) * Obtaining the base sequence of the DNA composing each gene (DNA sequencing)
2. Decoding the DNA sequence of the genes on all the chromosomes.
Benefits of the HGP:
* DNA Forensics
* Identify potential suspects whose DNA may match evidence left at crime scenes through DNA fingerprinting of samples such as blood or skin * Exonerate persons wrongly accused of crimes
* Identify crime and catastrophe victims
* Establish paternity and other family relationships
* Match organ donors with recipients in transplant programs * Microbe Genetics
* Biofuels, new sources of energy
* Environmental pollutants identified
* Safe & efficient clean-up of toxic wastes
* Protection from biological and chemical warfare
* Germ line studies of mutations
* Risk Assessment
* Assess the health damage and risks caused by exposure to both high and low doses of radiation * Assess the health damage and risks caused by exposure to mutagenic chemicals and...
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