Work-life Conflict &Work-life Integration
Work-life conflict is when cumulative work demands and non-work life roles are incompatible in some respect. It produces work-related stress and erodes the mental and physical well-being of workers (Ernst Kossek & Ozeki, 1998).
Work-life balance refers to the growing recognition that individuals require a satisfactory balance between the demands of work and those of the rest of life. An organizational family supportive philosophy and culture is essential to help employees to balance the interplay between their work and personal lives. A variety of family-friendly programs (e.g., flexible work schedules, telecommunicating) can contribute to job satisfaction, employee engagement and higher organizational performance (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006). Job demands-resources model
The job demands-resources model proposed that every organization has its own unique work environment which can be characterized by job demands and job(Demerouti, Nachreiner, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2001). According to the dual process in this model, high job demands, which require sustained effort exhaust workers physically and mentally and lead to energy depletion and health problems (health impairment process) while job resources which buffer the impact of job demands on strain foster work engagement and positive work outcomes (motivational process). To raise workers’ energy and work engagement, organization could focus on improving job resources (e.g., salary, role clarity, performance feedback) to reduce job demands and stimulate personal development. As a result, this intrinsic and extrinsic motivation leads to higher performance in worker and organization.
The complete dual process of the job demands-resources model (Bakker & Leiter, 2010)
Emotions in the workplace
Human energy and emotions at work are reciprocally related. “Mood is assumed to be closely associated with central states of...