One may be tempted to suppose that we, who experience the world through vision, experience a very different world from the worlds expereinced by bats or dolphins, who rely more on hearing, dogs or rats who make greater use of smell … or spiders or scorpoins who are attuned to mechanical variations. But at sufficiently abstract level, our worlds are all the same three dimensional Euclidean world - Roger Shepard (Solso 1994) (73)
Visual pattern recognition influences several areas -computer vision, machine learning, robotics, neuroscience, psychology, biological vision, AI, cognitive science, biological perception, visual arts and all aspects of or daily life (object recognition).
This paper focuses on visual cognition and pattern recognition; as these influences the human cognitive architecture more than tactile and auditory pattern recognition. Pattern recognition is the key phenomenon in visual cognition it distinguishes human cognitive architecture and bridges top-down and bottom up information processing approach. It also connects inside with outside. Thus connecting human wetware (mind brain complex) to wide-ware of the world.
I have used visual arts and illusion to explain pattern recognition because in spite of being abstract and illusive they present interesting good case for schema construction using top-down and bottom up processing. I claim that in pattern recognition top-down processing plays a critical role. This paper is divided into following section:
Brain Visual System Complex, Visual Arts, Pattern Recogntion in Non Humans and Instructional implication has been explained using the theories of visual literacy.
Brain Visual System Complex
Soslo has depicted 248 million years of organic evolution using 31 day January month of 2000. Insects, dinosaurs, reptiles evolved a well-developed eyes during this period. On January 31 at 11.59 am human like form appeared and within last 10 minutes falls the entire history if visual arts (Solso 1994) (24).
Human eyes are not the most complex visual system the eyes of simple insects are more complex they have many lenses and receptors, while we have just one lens with receptors.
Evolutionary biology emphasises that brain and visual system have evolved together as a visual cognitive complex in human. While simple brained animals have complex optical system; it seems complex brain offsets the need of a complex visual system in humans (Solso 1994) (14).
Based on Darwinian Evolutionary Theory- human capability to identify, recognise and differential patterns (like dark, from light, blues, from greens, straight lines from curved and moving objects from stationary) has significantly increased the chances of survival. Cognitive psychology elucidates that raw data of sensory signals is meaningless and random. But when these signals fall on a decoding visual system and brain complex they weave a rich pattern of meaningful relation. Most intriguing part is the corresponding, concurrent and complimentary evolution of sensory system, brain and the central nervous system (Solso 1994) (47) Search for meaningful pattern recognition involves at least three parameters: ▪ What is an object?
▪ Where is it?
▪ What is it doing?
Pylyshyn elucidates that behind the “smart” functionality of the visual system is messy yet sophisticated hardware:
As the light sensitive surface of the eye are two dimensional, so the sense of depth in visual system comes from the source of information. After decades of research we now know that part of information of depth comes from the difference between the patterns the two eyes receive. With all our understanding of stereo vision we are still far removed from understanding how does this difference in 2d vision translates to 3d experience? A very small part fovea has sufficient acuity to recognise pattern. Moreover eyes focal length differs for...