Human Cloning

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ETHICAL ISSUES

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC

AND

CHUMAN CLONING
ULTURAL ORGANIZATION

HUMAN
CLONING
ETHICAL ISSUES

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC

AND

CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

Graphic design (brochure): Jérôme Lo Monaco
Graphic design (cover): Marion Lo Monaco
Photo credits:
Page 8
Image of Nuclear Transfer, Roslin Institute
Page 9
Cloned Sheep “Dolly” and its Surrogate Mother, Roslin Institute Page 10
Cloned Cat “CC”, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary medicine Cloned Mice, University of Hawaii
Cloned Mule “Idaho Gem”, Phil Schofield/University of Idaho Cloned Calves, University of Tennessee
Cloned Pigs, Revivicor, Inc. (formerly PPL Therapeutics, Inc.), Blacksburg, Virginia Cloned Rabbits by Jean-Paul Renard research team, INRA/Bertrand Nicolas

Illustrations: Jérôme Lo Monaco

Further information:
Secretariat of the Bioethics Section
Division of Ethics of Science and Technology
Social and Human Sciences Sector
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
Tel. 33 (0)1 45 68 37 81
Fax. 33 (0)1 45 68 55 15
http://www.unesco.org/bioethics

First published in 2004 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Second edition, updated, 2005
7, place de Fontenoy F-75352 Paris 07 SP

© UNESCO 2005
Printed in France

HUMAN CLONING

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Preface by the Director-General

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A Brief History of Cloning

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Recent Development of Cloning Research on Animals

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What are the Ethical Issues regarding Human Cloning?

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Is Research Cloning different from Reproductive Cloning?

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Can Adult Stem Cells replace Embryonic Stem Cells?

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Cloning and the International Community

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Ongoing Discussion on Ethical Issues

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Further Reading and Useful Resources

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HUMAN CLONING

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In this new century, there has been no slackening of the pace of scientific research and discovery. Academic publications and the mass media inform us, virtually on a daily basis, of new and profound discoveries that seem to probe further than was ever believed possible, penetrating to the very core of the universe and unveiling the essence of what constitutes human beings. Few discoveries exemplify these sweeping developments more than cloning – the laboratory-aided replication of a strand of DNA that is used to produce an identical being. Suddenly, concepts and practices that just a generation or two ago would have been relegated to the realms of science fiction are fast becoming reality.

However, with such rapid scientific progress come reflection and often concern about its proper use. The question constantly arises as to how far the practice of cloning should be allowed to proceed.

Some ethical guidelines have been successfully established by the international community through the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, adopted by UNESCO’s General Conference in 1997 and endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly the following year. This document delves into the heart of the matter when it asserts that human life has an intrinsic value. It further states that “practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, shall not be permitted”. While each nation must determine for its society the proper limits to set on cloning, much can be gained from discussion and reflection at the international level. Understandably, it has been decision-makers, scientists and bioethicists who have assumed a leading role in the discussions relating to cloning and the profound ethical questions that it poses for humanity. However, other bodies of opinion, including the public at large, also have a major stake in a wider ethical debate and they often wish to know more.

It is up to UNESCO, custodian of an ethical mandate that...
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