thru Program/Projects/Activities (PPA) P.E.O.P.L.E
Democratization through political decentralization spread like wildfire in developing and transition economies in the 1990s yet fruits of this democratic participation remain largely elusive. What went wrong? This disappointing result may be attributable to a lack of progress in citizen empowerment to hold governments accountable in between elections as a median voter lacks the skills to evaluate government performance and hold it to account. It is in the interest of political and bureaucratic elites to ensure that the status quo prevails and the sun does not shine on government operations. Unraveling of this system requires fundamental institutional and legal reforms to empower citizens to demand accountability for performance from their governments. Local government refers to specific institutions or entities. Local governance is a broader concept and is defined as the formulation and execution of collective action at the local level. Thus, it encompasses the direct and indirect roles of formal institutions of local government and government hierarchies, as well as the roles of informal norms, networks, community organizations, and neighborhood associations in pursuing collective action by defining the framework for citizen–citizen and citizen–state interactions, collective decision-making, and delivery of local public services.
Local governance, therefore, includes the diverse objectives of vibrant, living, working, and environmentally preserved self-governing communities. Good local governance is not just about providing a range of local services but also about preserving the life and liberty of residents, creating space for democratic participation and civic dialogue, supporting market-led and environmentally sustainable local development, and facilitating outcomes that enrich the quality of life of residents. Todaro (1977) development must be regarded as “a multi-dimensional... [continues]
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