Human Body System

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This article is about the human body as a whole. For components within the human body, see human anatomy.

[[File:|thumb|300px|Human body features displayed on bodies on which body hair and male facial hair has been removed]]

The human body is the entire structure of a human organism, and consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells,[1] the basic unit of life.[2] These cells are organised biologically to eventually form the whole body. Contents

1 Size, type and proportion
2 Systems
2.1 Cardiovascular system
2.2 Digestive system
2.3 Integumentary system
2.4 Lymphatic system
2.5 Musculoskeletal system
2.5.1 Bones
2.6 Nervous system
2.7 Reproductive system
3 See also
4 References
5 Further reading
6 External links

Size, type and proportion
Constituents of the human body
In a normal man weighing 60 kg
Constituent Weight [3] Percent of atoms[3]
Hydrogen 6.0 kg 63%
Oxygen 38.8 kg 25.5%
Carbon 10.9 kg 9.5%
Nitrogen 1.9 kg 1.4%
Calcium 1.2 kg 0.2%
Phosphorus 0.6 kg 0.2%
Potassium 0.2 kg 0.07%
Main article: Body proportion

The average height of an adult male human (in developed countries) is about 1.7–1.8 m (5'7" to 5'11") tall and the adult female is about 1.6–1.7 m (5'2" to 5'7") tall.[4] Height is largely determined by genes and diet. Body type and composition are influenced by factors such as genetics, diet, and exercise. Systems

Main article: Organ systems

The organ systems of the body include the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, endocrine system, integumentary system, urinary system, lymphatic system, immune system, respiratory system, nervous system and reproductive system. Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. Cardiovascular system

Main articles: Cardiovascular system and Human heart

The cardiovascular system comprises the heart, veins, arteries and capillaries. The primary function of the heart is to circulate the blood, and through the blood, oxygen and vital minerals are transferred to the tissues and organs that comprise the body. The left side of the main organ (left ventricle and left atrium) is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body, while the right side (right ventricle and right atrium) pumps only to the lungs for re-oxygenation of the blood.[5][6] The heart itself is divided into three layers called the endocardium, myocardium and epicardium,(liquidation) which vary in thickness and function.[7] Digestive system

Main articles: Digestive system and Human gastrointestinal tract

The digestive system provides the body's means of processing food and transforming nutrients into energy. The digestive system consists of the buccal cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine ending in the rectum and anus. These parts together are called the alimentary canal (digestive tract). Integumentary system

Main article: Integumentary system

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, and is responsible for protecting the body from most physical and environmental factors. The largest organ in the body is the skin. The integument also includes appendages, primarily the sweat and sebaceous glands, hair, nails and arrectores pillorum (tiny muscles at the root of each hair that cause goose bumps). Lymphatic system

Main articles: Lymphatic system and Immune system

The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolise lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid). Musculoskeletal system

Main article: Musculoskeletal system

The human...
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