Human Biology Protein Production

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Produced by cell clusters in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose concentration in the blood. It is a protein synthesised and stored by beta cells, which secrete it in surges responding to changes in glucose levels. (Hardin, Bertoni and Kleinsmith, 2012) Fig 1. The Pancreas and Insulin

|Source: University of Maryland (2011) | | | |[pic] | | | | | |Source: Techvert.com (2010) | | | |Insulin’s peptide sequence was determined in 1953 by Frederick Sanger and its structure by Dorothy Hodgkin, both Nobel prize winners. Type 1 | |diabetes is a condition caused by a lack of in beta cells in the pancreas (Hanock, 2010). |

Protein synthesis begins in the nucleus of the human cell, “The term eukaryon means “true nucleus. This means that the very essence of a eukaryotic cell is its membrane bound nucleus.” (Hardin, Bertoni and Kleinsmith, 2012, p.356)

Fig.2 The Nucleus
|Source: King Saud University (2011) |10µm in diameter, the nucleus comprises a double membrane | | |enclosing one or more nucleolus, surrounded by chromatin. “The | |The Nuclear Envelope contains and protects the nucleus. It is perforated with|information store of the cell” | |3000 nuclear pores, channels that run between the interior of the nucleus and|(Alberts et al, 2010, p16), the nucleus holds DNA, “extremely | |the cytoplasm of the cell beyond. This membrane is continuous with the |long polymers that encode the genetic material of the organism.” | |endoplasmic reticulum see fig. 3 (Toole and Toole, 1995, p56). |(Alberts et al, 2010, p17) - the genetic blueprint for cell and | | |organism development and function. | | | | | |The nucleolus is a dense, often prominent area containing DNA and| | |RNA; DNA transcribed into a form useable by the cell. Ribosomes | | |also are formed in this area. | | | | | |The Nucleolus is surrounded by nucleoplasm, which is thick with | | |nucleotides and enzymes. It contains chromatin crucial during | | |cell division. (Toole and Toole, p56 1995). |

Every cell contains genetic material corresponding with the full compliment of proteins in the body. However, a single cell produces only those required...
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