Human Behavior

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Human Behavior in Organization
Importance Goals Nature of People

Importance of HBO

its important to know how people, as individuals and as groups, act within organizations.

Goals of HBO
To describe y To understand y To predict y To control

The Nature of People
Individual Difference ³Law of Individual Difference´ y Perception y A Whole Person y Desire for involvement y Value of the Person y Motivated Behavior y

Remember ³« organizational excellence begins with the performance of people«´ ³«it is what people do or do not do that ultimately determines what the organization can or cannot become«´ ³«it is our job as an I.E. to develop and promote behavioral patterns that are consistent with the achievement of goals«´

The issue is how to motivate your people! « Motivate people towards excellent performance! It is our primary task as managers« The question is WHAT IS MOTIVATION? It refers to the WHY and CAUSE of behavior. Motivation is the strength of the drive towards an action.

Basic Motivation Model
Goal Ability

Needs and Drives



Perform ance

Reward s

Needs Satisfaction

Influence of Culture
Self esteem or Amor-propio -sensitive to words or actions of others y Embarrassment or Hiya -behaving in what is deemed to be an acceptable way y Obligation or Utang na Loob -repaying favors y Getting Along Together or Pakikisama -SIR (smooth Interpersonal Relations) that may lead to innefficiencies y

Three Patterns of Motivation

Achievement Motivation Affiliation Motivation Power Motive



Needs Satisfaction
Why do we have to satisfy their needs? They behave in order to satisfy their needs!

Needs Satisfaction Approach to Motivation

Internal needs



Needs Satisfaction

Abraham Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs

Physiological Needs y Safety and Security Needs y Love and Social Needs y Esteem and Status Needs y Self-actualization or Self-fulfillment Needs y

³«a satisfied need is no longer a motivator!...´ ³«as one need is satisfied, another need emerges«´

Clayton Alderfer¶s ERG Model

Existence: Physiological and safety needs 2. Relatedness: Social and external esteem needs 3. Growth: Self-actualization and internal esteem needs 1.

Frederick Herzberg¶s Motivation-Hygiene MotivationTheory (Two Factor Theory) Need to Avoid Pain Need for Achievement Motivational Factors ‡Job Content ‡Intrinsic Factors ‡Satisfies Examples Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Hygiene Factors ‡Job Context ‡Extrinsic Factors ‡Dissatisfies Examples Company policy Quality of supervision Relations with supervisors, peers, & subordinates Pay, job security, status Work conditions

Behavior Modification
1. 2. 3. 4.

Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Extinction

Reinforcement Guidelines
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Specify behavior to be reinforced. Reinforce specified behavior at once. Reward small achievements as well. Provide material as well as nonmaterial incentives. Offer small rewards Reinforce at intermittent intervals


Expectancy theory
Expectancy probability Instrumentality probability Valence


Case studies

Group and Work Behavior
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Elements of a Group Types of a Group The Importance of Groups in Work Organization Limitations of Group and Group Work Group Development Group Structure Group Goals

Elements of Group
What is a Group? ³«Common interests and goals binds the members of a group«´ y How do we differentiate a group into an individual and an organization? y

Types of Group
Formal Group 2. Informal Group
Basis of Comparison General Nature Major Concepts Primary Focus Source of Leader Power Guidelines for Behavior Sources of Control Informal Organization Unofficial Power and Politics Person Given by Group Norms Sanctions Formal Organization Official Authority and Responsibility Position...
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