A gang member was stabbed in the chest during a street fight. He was cyanotic and unconscious from lack of blood delivery to the brain. The diagnosis was cardiac tamponade. What is cardiac tamponade and how does it cause the observed symptoms? (4 points). Answer: 2.
You have been called upon to demonstrate the technique for listening to valve sounds. (a) Explain where you would position your stethoscope to auscultate (1) aortic valve of a patient with severe aortic valve insufficiency (2) Stenotic mitral valve. (b) During which periods would you hear these abnormal heart sounds most clearly? (During atrial diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole, or atrial systole? (c) What cues would you use to differentiate between an insufficient and a stenosed valve? (4 points). Answer: 3.
Florita Santos, a middle-aged woman, is admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of Left ventricular failure resulting from myocardial infarction. Her history indicated that she was aroused in the middle of the night by severe chest pain. Her skin is pale and cold, and moist sounds are heard over the lower regions of both lungs. Explain how failure of the left ventricle can cause these signs and symptoms. (4 points). Answer: 4.
Heather, a newborn baby, needs surgery because she was born with an aorta that arises from the right ventricle and a pulmonary trunk that issues from the left ventricle, a condition called transposition of the great vessels. What are the physiological consequences of this defect? (4 points) Answer: 5.
Gabriel, a heroin addict, feels tired, is weak and feverish, and has vague aches and pains. Terrified that he has AIDS, he goes to a doctor and is informed that he is suffering not from AIDS, but from a heart murmur accompanied by endocarditis. What is the most likely way that Gabriel contracted endocarditis? ( 4 points). Answer: Ch. 19, page 751, Questions (1-5)
1. Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room after being involved in auto...
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