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* Transcendentalists- followers of a belief which stressed living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination; believer in one’s self ability to penetrate the inner essence of things; promoted the belief of individualism; influenced social/humanitarian reforms; * Early-mid 19th century education- previously most common with wealthy; 1830s, demands for tax-supported public schools; Horace Mann, education public; slow increase in women’s educational opportunities beyond elementary school such as Emma Willard’s Troy Female Seminary(1821) and Mary Lyon’s Mount Holyoke Female Seminary(1837); * Transportation Revolution- period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of internal improvements of roads, canals, steamboats, etc.; increase of U.S. productivity and the growth of the economy as the various innovations allowed faster and cheaper shipping and connected the economies of the country; opened new markets and rapid growth in towns and cities(such as NYC) * Emancipation policies- abolitionists opposed slavery but didn’t advocate racial equality (most wanted gradual emancipation or resettlement of blacks in Africa); at the time, only radical abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison demanded immediate emancipation of all slaves; VA debate (gradually abolishing slavery but lost as leg. more of eastern slaveholders) * Declaration of Sentiments-Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, list of grievances written before Seneca Falls Convention(1848); declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights; basis of attaining rights for women * Railroads- way faster mean of transportation than canals or roads; much more comfortable for passengers; did not expand fully until after 1850s; * Tocqueville democracy in America- published in 1835 as a result of Alexis de Tocqueville observations which reflected broad interest...
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