Hubungan Tenaga Kerja

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Individual project:
Research current theories in employment relations

I. Traditional perspectives on the employment relationship. Traditional perspectives are important because they express the different assumptions that other make about the nature of organization, the fundamental nature of the relationship between workers and employers, and the characteristics of the society within which work organization exist and function. The three views are most frequently referred to as the unitary, pluralist and Marxist perspectives. The Marxist/ radical perspective is sometimes referred to as the Conflict Model. Each offers a particular perception of workplace relations and will therefore interpret such events as workplace conflict, the role of trade unions and job regulation very differently.

2.1 the unitary perspective

In Unitary perspective, the organization is perceived as an integrated and harmonious whole with the ideal of "one happy family", where management and other members of the staff all share a common purpose, emphasizing mutual cooperation. Furthermore, unitary has a paternalistic approach where it demands loyalty of all employees, being predominantly managerial in its emphasis and application. 2.2.1 management style

management’s right to manage and make decision is seen as rational, legitimate and acceptable to all ( Salamon 1987) its mean there is only one source of power and authority.

2.2.2 roles of parties
For the management have to provide good communication skill and also strong leadership skill. The employees roles should be loyal to organization and management.

2.2.3 employment relations perspective
The aggressive style of management (strong emphasis on HRM such commonality and organizational goal) that can promote the avoidance or marginalization of trade unions

2.2.4 weakness/critisms
A narrow approach that neglects cause of conflict, fails to explain the prevalence of conflict within organization. Assumption that all management decisions are rational and will take care of employee needs. Does not take account for uneven distribution of power among employees and employers in the decision making process.

2.2.5 a unitary perspective, which informs in human resource management (HRM) HRM also knew as modern form that approach by unitarism perspective to industrial relations characteristics, that is. The management of the employment relationship primary from the perspective of the employer. This can be refer in the main focus of HRM. Such as plan human resource requirement, recruit and hire employees, train and manage employee performance, reward employees and dismissal or retire employee. The two main forms within the HRM approach are known as:

1. Soft HRM is developmental humanism,
2. Hard HRM is instrumental integration of employees into company objective. This two perspective to HRM can also be seen as the best practice approach and contingency approach.

2.2 the pluralism perspective

In The pluralism perspective the manager approve foster freedom of expression and the development of groups, which establish their own norms and choose their own informal leaders. Organization Power is diffused among the main bargaining groups within the employment relationships (no-one dominates). Because of the power and control arise in several areas of the organisation and loyalty is commanded by the leaders of the groups, which are often in competition with each other for resources. Pluralist perspective regards conflict as inevitable because employers and employees have conflicting interests; trade unions are seen as a legitimate counter to management authority. This is mean, represents good leadership, although sometimes it can be difficult to achieve the necessary balance, in which the interests of all stakeholders have to be taken into account. The management style under pluralist perspective focuses on consensus...
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