Emmanuel D. Alcantara
Reaction Paper to Ethics
In chapter 1 we discuss the study of “ETHICS”. Ethics came from the word ethos which means the characteristic way of acting and its Latin word is mos., mores which means the traditional line of conduct or custom. It is form this root word that the word moral or morality is derived. Example of ethos of man as man is revealed that he is able to distinguish between good and evil, right or wrong, moral and immoral. Ethics is defined as the “practical and philosophical science of the morality of human act”. In science it is a body of systematized knowledge arranged with its accompanying explanation. In a practical science ethics consists of principles and laws that are applied in daily living. In philosophical science it presents and deliberates its subject matter. Ethics has an object material object to human, formula object to morality act, formula object quo to human reason, and formula. Ethics also has importance first is to sharpen the moral nature of the learners by inculcating the moral norms it means that to open to the mind to people that ethics is important. Second is to make them aware of the moral principles and laws governing man’s action It’s importance to aware to man’s moral principles and laws to what are their limitation as a man. Third to help the students become aware of the intimate relation between their moral natures and law, student must know also their relations as a man and be aware what they’re doing as man are. Fourth to show to the learners acting in accordance with the rational and moral nature could lead them supernatural destiny-God and fifth is to develop in the students in the students realize that people cannot live together harmoniously in society without the ethical norms and laws applied or followed. There are two types of ethical system. First is the Atheistic which he/she believes that God does not exist or we can say that this kind of man is an Anti-Christ. It’s characteristic that only matter exist, Man is responsible only to himself, morality is an invention of man to suit his requirements and top preserve his society, and moral truths are temporary and mutable depending on the situation. The concept of good and evil is always relative and changeable. Their theories is that matter is the reality that man is matter and does not have spiritual dimension, man is free and must exercise his freedom to promote the welfare of society, and man is accountable only to state. Second ethical system is the Theistic that he/she believes that God is the supreme lawgiver. Man is free and must use his freedom to promote his personal and social interest along with his fellowmen, has an immoral soul which cannot die, and is accountable for his actions, both good and evil. In chapter 1 we also discuss that ethics has a relation to other sciences. Ethics and logic that doing follows thinking as knowledge or right leads to doing of right. Ethics and psychology both deals with the study of man, human nature, and human behavior its difference is that psychology is not interested in the morality of human act, unlike ethics. Ethics and Sociology it deals with the moral order which includes the social order. Society depends on ethics for its underlying principles. And finally ethics and economics man is also an economic being because he has to support himself y earning a living this to aspects of one and the same human nature.
Chapter 2 we discuss “Man and His Existence” in this chapter we recognize some Greek thinkers (The founder of philosophy of man). First Socrates (469-399BC) his is a teacher of Plato he believes that man is made of body and soul. The soul is distinct from the body, and is likened to God in memory, understanding, indivisibility, immortality, and the highest value if man is happiness. Second Plato (427-347 BC) he believes that man is essentially a soul that souls are spiritual and immortal and death liberates the soul from...
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