Current management practice requires managers to use a variety of motivational techniques when leading their teams. Define, analyse and compare recognised motivational theories, explain how these are used within your own organisation making recommendations to the most suitable and effective techniques.
In my opinion there may be scope to say that managers may be unconscious to motivational techniques if they have self-starting team around them. If we consider that a well measured recruitment process or selection to join the team based on Belbin’s team Inventory (2004) should evolve to produce productive results based on the team’s objectives quite effectively in theory but there is always other considerations that each team member including the leader on what is needed a means to motivate.
Unfortunately, life is not ideal for companies and it is beneficial to understand how to motivate people in order to encourage them to fulfil their potential. Handy (1999) tells us that there were three traditional motivational theories that theorists based their models. Using satisfaction as a motivator; there is no hard evidence to support that this method will produce increased productivity but there is however reduced levels of absenteeism and staff turnover if the conditions and staff morale is good and or if they get on well with their team leader and the rest of the group. Herzberg’s (1993) two-factor theory lends to the idea that in a work situation you can distinguish between factors that satisfy and those that dissatisfy.
If you are able to deal with the dissatisfying issues, it may not necessarily then become a satisfying or motivational factor.
Herzberg identified that maintenance factors or hygiene are things such as company policies, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationships and physical working conditions. These are necessary conditions to maintain motivation successfully.
Herzberg also grouped factors what he called satisfiers or motivators. That list included achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement. From these factors of hygiene and motivators, it is said that good hygiene will deal with ‘Why work here?’ and motivators will beg the question ‘Why work harder?’
Handy (1999) explains that the incentive theory can be productive as it relates to the extra effort or one of the ‘E’ factors being applied resulting in reward in some shape or form, be it money, status or independence.
Taylor (1947) discusses that staff being offered higher wages motivated them to meet their precisely calculated targets each week.
There are conditions to this theory though, firstly, the person must believe that the extra effort is worth the reward, secondly, their performance has to be measurable and be obviously accredited to them only, thirdly, the reward on offer must be desirable to the person and finally, the increased performance must not become the minimum amount of work expected from the person.
Generally this is an effective theory, however if any of these conditions are not applicable (excluding work expected) then it results will fall into the satisfaction theory and lastly, if as a result of the additional effort being expected as the norm, then the creditability of that manager would be at risk by their employee’s.
The theory on intrinsic motivation is the idea things are done simply for the enjoyment or the contentment from doing something that gives us pleasure. A person is prepared to work and needs no reward or financial incentive to act as a factor in his or her motivation to work.
Abraham Maslow (1970) wrote about the hierarchy of needs first in 1943 and this is still used to this day by managers to understand, predict and influence employee motivation. Maslow was able to group humans needs and organised these into different classes to form a hierarchy on five levels. The first relates to survival or physiological...